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COf FEDERATE STATES 



AND 



' LJJ 

^Upositorg of Useful' JEMfohhgeJB 



IFOIEL 1862. 



COMPILED AND PUBLISHED BY H. C. CLARKE, 

VIOKSBURG, MISSISSIPPI. 
4®=- FOR SALE BY ALL BOOKSELLERS IN THE CONFEDERACY.-©* 



THE 



CONFEDERATE STATES 



AND 



,tp$tixx% 0f Useful Jbafolcfoge, 



for a.s©a. 



COMPILED AND PUBLISHED BY H. C CLARKE, 

VICKSBURG, MISSISSIPPI. 

4®= FOE SALE BY ALL BOOKSELLERS IN THE CONFEDERACY. -=©8k 



Entered; according to act of Congress, in the year 1861, by 
H. C. CLARKE, 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Confederate States for the District of 

Mississippi. 



PREFACE. 



The first volume of the Confederate States Almanac is introduced 
to the people of the South. The work is designed to be published 
yearly. The leading object of the publication is to make it the 
repository of the largest possible amount of useful information ; 
embracing annual statistics from all States in the Confederacy, 
showing our progress in population, manufactures, commerce, wealth, 
and all the elements of prosperity. We intend to be able to make 
the work from year to year a complete manual of reference and general 
information. 

This first edition of the Almanac is not near so complete as the 
publisher could wish From the short time in which the work was 
compiled, and the impossibility (owing to the present state of the 
country) of obtaining the exact information, much valuable matter 
intended for this edition was left out. The contents of this volume 
have been gathered from authentic sources, and compiled with great 



a' 
care. 



The Compiler. 



CONTENTS. 



PAOE 

Calendar 5 

History of the Formation of the Confederate States 17 

Government of the Confederate States 22 

Population, Resources, Dates of Secession, etc., of the Confederate States 

and Territories 23 

Population of the Confederate States, 1860 31 

Population of the Southern States and Territories, not yet in the Con- 
federacy 31 

The Origin of Secession 32 

Pay of Volunteer Officers and Privates 33 

State Government of the Confederate States 34 

Confederate States Army 35 

Representation and Electoral Vote of the Confederate States 36 

Constitution of the Confederate States 38 

Message of President Davis 52 

Cotton and its Supply 70 

Cotton Crop 72 

Supply and Consumption of Cotton in Europe and the United States 75 

Sugar Crop of Louisiana for 1860 76 

Extent of the Tobacco Interest 79 

The Tobacco Trade of Virginia S3 

Rates of Postage in the Confederate States 86 

Diary of the Present Revolution 88 

The Battle of Manassas 105 

Appendix ••• 115 



Ibt Month, 



JANUARY, 



1862. 







NASHVILLK. 


SUN ENTERS 


CHARLES- 




« 


s 


Teiin., North 


Isr^ 


TON, South 






Carolina, Vir- 


Jffl&&!. 


Carolina, 




w 


ginia, Ken- 


^wJjIml *\ 


Georgia, Ala- 




Is 


*% 


tucky, Mis- 


/j^1Kw|h| 


liama. Florida, 


Eh 


o 


fa 
O 


souri, Arkan- 
sas, Kansas, 


A«j!&^JMaas. 


Mississippi, 
' Louisiana, 


CQ 




«-H 




I* 


California. 


20 d. 1 h., mo. 


Texas, 


C 












K 






SUN 


SUN 


MOON 


MlSCKLTiANKA. 


RUN 


SUN 


MOON 
















SKTS. 


SETS. 








H. M. 


H. M. 






H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


•i ° 


W 


1 


7 13 


4 55 


6 2C 


Circumcision. 


7 4 


5 3 


6 35 


VJ 24 

/wv 7 


T 


2 


7 13 


1 55 


7 31 




7 4 


5 4 


7 30 


F 


3 


7 18 


4 56 


8 31 


Fort Pulaski taken, 1801. 


7 5 


5 5 


8 37 


20 


S 


4 


7 13 


4 57 


9 34 


Fort Morgan taken, 1861. 


7 5 


5 


9 35 


5£ 4 



7 13 
7 13 
7 13 
7 13 
7 13 
7 13 
7 13 



4 58 

4 59 

5 
5 
5 1 
5 2 
5 3 



10 32 2d Sunday after Christmas. 

11 33 [Epiphany. 
morn.! <*•&, First Quarter, [taken. 

3G|jviFFts. Johnson &Caswell 

1 30 1 Mississippi seceded, 1861. 

2 20 [Ft. Jackson, etc. .taken, '01. j 7 

3 18i!Ala. and Fla. seceded, '61.1 7 



7 5 


5 0110 31 


17 


7 5 


5 "111 30 


29 


7 5 


5 8 morn. 


<Y> 12 : 


7 5 


5 9 30 


■u ! 


7 5 


5 10 


1 30 


H <•> 


7 5 


5 11 


2 19 


17 1 


7 5 


5 12 


3 9 


29 ; 



4 12i|lsJ /San. a/fer Epiphany. 

5 4 Pensacola Navy Yard 



5 52! 
31 
rises. 



[taken, 1801 
.Full Moon. 



17 5 


5 13 


7 5 


5 13 


7 4 


5 14 


7 4 


5 15 


.7 4 5 10 


7 4 5 17 


!7 415 18 



4 3;n 


11 


4 55 1 


23 


5 44;o^ 





6 20| 


18 


rises. ;& 


1 


7 7 I 


14 


8 5| 


27 


9 ; tiv 


10 


10 in! 


24 


11 15 =- 


8 


morn. 


22 


22m 





1 30 


20 


2 001/ 


4 



7 li 



|s 


19 


7 11 


5 11 


9 6 


> M 


20! 


7 10 


5 12 


10 12 


T 


21| 


7 10 


5 13 


11 19 


W 


'^2 


7 9 


5 14 


morn. 


T 


23|i7 9 


5 15 


■0 28 


F 


24|i7 '8 


5 10 


1 88 


S 


25' 


7 8 


5 17 


2 45 



2d Sun. after Epiphany. 
Georgia seceded, 1801. 
J. C: Breckinridge b., 1821. 

/?r^Last Quarter. 

Conversion of St. Paul. 





;-> 




TO 


7 


3 


5 


20 


7 


o 


5 


2ll 


7 


*? 


5 


22 


7 


1 


5 


231 


7 


1 


5 


23 


7 


1 


5 


24 



20 i7 
7 
7 
7 



7 


5 18 


3 48 


Louisiana seceded, 1861. 


6 


5 20 


4 47 




6 


5 21 


5 40 




5 


5 22 


C 22 


•iSpSkNew Moon. 


4 


5 23 


-sets. 


'"Iliiif [House taken, '61. 


4 


5 24 


■7 8 


N. O. Mint and Custom- 



7 





7 








59 





59 


6 


58 


6 


57 



5 25 


3 39 


5 20 


4 38 


5 27 


5 32 


5 28 


15 


5 29 


sets. 


5 30 


7 10 



>5 



19 
3 

17 
1 

15 
28 



MoonVj Phases. 




'Charleston. 


Nashviixk. 


Net? Oet.bans. 


3. FnANCisco, 


Sui 
or 


on Meridian 
Noon mark. 




n. 


tt. M. 


H. M. 


"n. ttl. 


H. M. 


D. 


H. M. s. 


J) First Quar. 


/ 


5 ev. 


4 89 ev. 


4 20 nv. 


2 16 ev. 


1 


11 3 51 


O Full Moon. 


15 


8 lOev. 


7 43 ev. 


7 30 ev. 


5 20 ev. 


9 


1 2 7 25 


(£ Last Quar. 


23 


1 15 mo. 


48 mo. 


35 mo. 


10 25ev.* 


17 


12 10 24 


© New Moon. 


29 


10 33 ev. 


10 6 ev. 


9 53 ev. 


7 43 ev. 


25 


12 12 8S 



* 22d day. 



nceraiaiaiEKQHBHi 



2d Month, 




PEBRTTARY, 






1862 






NASHVILLE, 1 


SUN ENTEKS 


CHARLES- 




X 


£ 


Temn., JJortfi ; 


^sa. 


TON, South 


a 




Carolina, Vir- 


I^p^irli^l 


Carolina, 


o 


W 


ginia, Ken- 


^Wm^*^) 


Georgia, Ala- 


2 


^ 


r=i 


tucky, Mas- j 


(SS^^feaS? 


bama, Florida, 


p< 


fe 


En 


sonri, Arkan- 


^MSgjBg^f 


Mississippi, 


M 


O 


O 


sas, Kansas, 




Louisiana, 


K 


^ 

V 


ki 


California. 


18 d. 3 h., ev. 


Texas. 


o 
o 












*s 






SUN 
KISES. 


SETS. 


Mi.'HS 
SETS. 


MISCELLANEA. 


RUN 
UI-SES. 


SL'N 

SETS. 


MnflN 
2FTS. 








H. M. 


IT. M. 


H. M. 




H. M. 


II. M. 


H. M. 


s. ° 


s 


1 


7 3 


5 25 


8 10 


Texas seceded, 1861. 


6 57 


5_31 


8 12 


X 152 



215 26 
l!5 27 
0,5 28 
59 5 29 
58; 5 30 
57|5 31 
57i5 32 



9 11 j 'Purification of Vir. Mary. 116 56 

10 lOJi ' [1861. ^6 55 

11 8|;Rev. cutter Cass taken, j.O 54 
morn. I ! I 6 54 

5 : :^m First Quarter. ji6 53 

1 : igp • G 52 
1 55!! ' i,0 51 



9 9 

10 7 

11 3 
11 59 
morn. 

52 

1 47 



25 

cp 7 

20 

a 2 

14 

26 

n 7 



s 


9|i6 56 


5 33 


2 48|! 


M 


10|l« 55 '5 84 1 3 38|l 


T 


11 ,6 54 5 35; 4 23j! 


W 


12 6 53 


5 36! 5 3l| 


T 


13i(i 51 


5 38 


rises.'! 


F 


14!!6 50 


5 39 


5 48! 


S 


15; G 49 


5 40 


6 54! 



kFuII Moon. 



6 49 5 40 

6 48 5 41 

k; 47 5 42 

J6 46 5 43 

,6 45 5 44 



2 39 

3 30 

4 15 

4 56 
rises. 

5 50 

6 54 



19 

25 1 
14 
27 

ft 9 

23 

Trt> 7 



48 

47 

', 6 46 



5 41 8 ()\\Septuagesima. 
5 42 1 9 7i! [Bell b., 1797. 

5 43il0 16!|Davis inaug., 1861. John 
19! 6 -45 5 44J11 27!] 

45. morn. ,j 

46 1 37:l/^r^Last Quarter. 

47: 1 42,il.vLwasliingtonb.,1732. 



20, '6 

21 i !'J 
22! 16 



44 i 5 

42 5 
4ll5 



:6 44 


5 45 


7 59 


21 : 


6 43! 5 46 


9 4 


=t 5 i 


6 42 5 47 


10 11 


19 


'6 41 


5 47 


11 21 


"I 3 


;6 40 


5 48 


morn. 


17 


6 39 


5 49 


29 


t 1 


; 6 38 


5 50 


1 34 


15 1 



23||6 40]5 48! 2 40\\Sexa<?e.iima. 

24 6 39lo 48! 3 31||». Matthias. 

25llo 3715 49 4 17!'W Pinkney died, 1822. 

26;J6 36l5 50 4 57l[ 

271:6 35 5 51 5 30! : /$fe| Marion died, 1795. 



28'JG 33!5 52; sets. 



'New Moon. 



no 30 


5 51 


2 31 


29 


!0 35 


5 52 


3 23 


V? 13 


!6 34 


5 52 


4 10 


27 


i:6 88 


5 53 


4 52 


m* 1 1 


,6 31 


5 54 


5 27 


24 


:6 30 


5 55 


sets. 


X 7 



MOON'S PHAHliS. 



5 First Quar. 
O Full Moon. 
(£ Last Quar. 
A New Moon. 



CHARLESTON. 



6 2 50 ev. 
14lll 40 mo. 
21 1 9 10 mo. 
28! 11 44 mo. 



N, 


LSHVILLE. 


ir. 


M. 




*> 


23 


ev. 


11 


13 


mo. 


8 


43 


mo. 


11 


17 


mo. 



New 


Ort.kans. 


11. 


M. 


2 


10 ev. 


11 


mo. 


8 


30 mo. 


11 


4 mo. 



S. Francisco. 



12 On'n. 
8 50 mo. 
6 20 mo. 
8 54 mo. 



Sun on Meridian j 
or Noon mark. \ 



D. 


H. M. 3. 


1 


12 13 53 


9 


12 14 29 


17 


12 14 17 


25 


12 13 18 



Reason and experience both forbid us to expect that national morality can prevail 
in exclusion of religious principles.— George Washington. 



3d Month, 



MARCH, 








NASHVILLE, 


SUN ENTERS 


CHARLES- 






ffi 


Tenn., Wortli 




TON, South 






H 
IS 

o 


Carolina, "Vir- 


-JSSPt 


Carolina, 




ginia, Ken- 


sfg9i$3SSP' 


Georgia, Ala- 




it 


3 


tucky, Mis- 


^^^K. 


bama, Florida, 




fe 


fa 


souri, Arkan- 


Mississippi, 


Cfi 




o 


sas, Kansas, 




Louisiana, 










(* 


r* 


California. 


20 d. 3 h., ev. 


Texas. 


O 
© 


fi 











£ 


SUN 
KlSKS. 


SUN 
SETS. 


MOON 

sets. 


MISCELLANEA. 


BUN 
KISKS. 


SUN 
KKTfl. 


MOOR 

SETS. 






H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 




H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


s. o 


s 


1 


6 32 


5 53 


6 58 




6 29 


5 56 


6 57 


X 20 



S 


2 


,6 31 


5 54 


7 57 


M 


3 


!g 29 


5 55 


8 56 


T 


4 


6 28 


5 56 


9 54 


W 


5 


6 26 


5 57 


10 51 


T 


6 


6 25 


5 58 


11 47 


F 


7 


6 24 


5 59 


morn. 


S 


8 


6 22 


5 59 


41 



Quinqiiagesima. S. Hous- 
ton b., 1793, 
Shrove Tuesday. 
Ash Wednesday. 
D. Crockett died, 1836. 

I First Quarter. 



28 
6 27 
6 26 
6 25 
6 23 
6 22 
6 21 



7 56 

8 56 

9 50 

10 43 

11 39 
morn. 

32 



r 



n 



3 
15 

28 
10 

22 

n I 
° I 

15 



s 


9 


6 21 


6 


1 32 


M 


10 


6 19 


6 1 


2 18 


T 


11 


6 18 


6 2 


3 


W 


12 


6 17 


6 3 


3 39 


T 


13 


6 15 


6 4 


4 15 


F 


14 


6 14 


6 5 


4 48 


S 


15 


6 12 


6 6 


5 18 



1st Sunday in Lent. 

VtcDuffie died, 1851. 
Fort Brown taken, 1861. 

[born, 1767. 
«~7Full Moon. Jackson 



6 20 


6 


o 


1 23 


6 18 


6 


3 


2 10 


6 17 


6 


3 


2 53 


6 16 


6 


4 


3 33 


6 14 


6 


5 


4 11 


6 13 


6 


6 


4 46 


6 12 


6 


6 


5 18 



27 
05 10 

, 22 

a 4 

18 

TrtJ 1 

15 



s 


16 


6 11 


6 


rises. 


M 


17 


6 10 


6 7 


8 7 


T 


18 


6 8 


6 8 


9 19 


W 


19 


6 7 


6 9 


10 30 


T 


20 


6 5 


6 10 


11 38 


F 


21 


6 4 


6 11 


morn. 


S 


22 


6 2 


6 12 


42 



2d Sun. in Lent. Madison 
[b., 1751. 
Callioun born, 1782. 
Jas. Jackson died, 1806. 

Vji^ Last Quarter. 



6 11 


6 7 


rises. 


6 9 


6 8 


8 2 


6 8 


6 9 


9 13 


7 


6 9 


10 22 


6 5 


6 10 


11 30 


6 4 


6 11 


morn. 


6 3 


6 11 


33 





14 
29 

28 
12 

20 



6 1 


6 12 


1 30 


V? 10 


6 


6 13 


2 17 


24 


5 59 


6 14 


2 58 


/W* 7 


■5 57 


6 14 


3 34 


21 ! 


|5 56 


6 15 


4 7 


¥ 4 


1-5 55 


6 16 


4 38 


16 1 


15 54 


6 16 


5 7 


29 t 



23 


6 1 


6 12 


1 38! 


24 


5 59 


6 13 


2 24 1 


25 


5 58 


6 14 


3 3 


26 


5 56 


6 15 


3 38 


27 


5 55 


6 16 


4 9|j 


28 


5 53 


6 17 


4 38, 


29 


5 52 


6 17 


5 6 ! 



Zd Sunday in Lent, 
innun. of Virgin Mary. 



S 30 
M 31 



5 51 6 
5 49 6 



sets. |||Q|feiNewMoon. 4th Sun. in 
7 54li l »i|gf Calhoun d.. '50. [Lent. 



5 53 6 17 
5 51 6 18 



sets. Ity 11 
7 48l 24 



MOON S PHASES. 



5 First Quar. 
O Full Moon. 
([_ Last Quar. 
<H> New Moon. 



Charleston. 



11 ev. 
11 16 ev. 

4 34 ev. 

5 41 ev. 



1144 mo. 
10 49 ev.. 

4 7 mo. 

2 14 mo. 

*29th day. 



New Okleanp. 


H 


M. 




n 


31 


mo. 


10 


36 


ev. 


3 


54 


ev. 


2 


1 


mo. 



S. Francisco. 



H. M. 

9 21 mo. 

8 26 mo. 

1 44 ev. 

11 51 ev.* 



Sun on Meridian 
or Noou mark. 



12 12 35 
12 10 44 
12 8 32 
12 6 7 



4th Month, 



4tl 






w 


H 


m 


^ 


K 




1* 


s 


fc. 


:=-■ 


o 


c 


IX 


hH 



NASHVILLE, 
Temi., Wovlli 
Carolina,, Vir- 
ginia, Ken- 
tucky, Mis- 
souri, Arkan- 
sas, Kansas, 
California. 



ii|0 
2N5 



MOON 



H. M. 

6 20 
("i 21 



|15 45! 6 22 
43 |G 23 
42 28 



8 50 

9 46 

10 40 

11 32 
morn. 



APRIL, 



US ENTERS 



1862. 




20 d. 3 h., mo. 



MISCELLANEA. 



Jefferson born, 1743. 



CHARLES- 
TON, sontn 

Carolina, 

I Georgia, Ala- 

l>nma,Floritla, 

Mississippi, 

Louisiana, 

Texas. 



S'JN 


SUN 


RISES. 


SETS. 
H. M. 


H. M. 


5 49 


6 18 


5 48 


6 19 


5 47 


6 20 


5 46 


6 21 


5 44 


6 21 



MOON 
SETS. 



8 43 
9 

10 32 

11 23 
morn. 



55 
O 
O 



« 6 

18 

n o 
n 

23 



6j|5 4116 24 

7], 5 30 25 

8:J5 38 ! 6 26 

Oil) 36 6 27 

10! 5 35 5 28 

lljlu 34 (i 28 

12 !.5 32J6 29 



20\[oth Sunday in Lent. 
1 

1 41: 

2 16! 

2 49' 



3 •<*?% First Quarter. 

3 



]i5 43 

'5 42 

!:s 40 

i 5 39 

1^5 38 

[Ft. Sumter, 1861. ,!5 37 

3 54, III. Clay b., 1777. Bat. of ,5 35 



22 


11 


6 23 


55 


6 23 


1 85 


6 24 


2 11 


6 25 


2 46 


6 25 


3 21 


6 26 


3 54 



93 5 
17 

SI 

12 ! 
26 
m> 9 



13 


i !j 


3116 


30 


14' 


•j 


29 6 


31 


15 


i° 


286 


32 


16 





27i6 


33 


17i 


|5 


25 1 6 


83 


18 ( 


'■:> 


24 ] 6 


84 


19 





2316 


85 



4 2Q '\Palm Sunday. 
rises. '■-'jnjx Full Moon. 

8 2Y '■-.'£) Ft. Bliss taken, 1861. 

9 85 N.C.fts.&ars'ltaken,1861. 

10 41 [j Virginia seceded, 1861. 

11 88, '.Good Friday. 
morn.||Baltimore massacre, 1861. 



!5 34 


6 27 


4 28 


=2= 8 


|5 33 


6 28 


rises. 


oo 


j5 32 


6 28 


8 14 


tn, 7 


5 31 


6 29 


9 27 


22 


5 29 


6 30 


10 32 


/ 7 


6 28 


6 30 


11 29 


22 


15 27 


6 31 


morn. 


VJ 6 



20N5 2216 36 



21j5 20 
22!:5 19 
23i'5 18 
17 
15 
14 



24 



6 37 



6 40 
41 



27n.Rj.sto'. Har. Fy.& Norfolk 

1 9j j/JJf^ Last Quar- [evac., '61. 
145 s^, ter. 

2 18 ; 

2 48! 

3 lti\\St. Mark. 
3 44! 



15 26 


6 32 


19 


20 


!5 25 


6 33 


1 3 


iHt A 


'5 24 


6 33 


1 41 


18 


! 5 23 


6 34 


2 16 


¥ 1 


! 5 21 


6 36 


2 47 


14 


5 20 


36 


3 16 


26 


!5 19 


6 36 


3 46 


<Y> 8 



S 


271 15 13 


6 42 


4 12| 


M 


28115 12 


6 43 


sets. \ 


T 


2915 11 


6 44 


7 46; 


W 


soils 10 


6 45 


8 48! 



1st Sunday after Easter. 
fllSkNew Moon. 



5 1816 37 


4 16 


5 17 6 38 


sets. 


5 16 6 38 


7 38 


5 15J6 39 


8 35 



21 
3 

15 

26 ! 



Moon's Phases. 


Charleston. 


Nashville. 


New Orleans. 


S. Francisco. 


Sim on Meridian 
or Noon mark. 




p . 


K. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


K. M. 


D. 


It. M. 5i 


3 First Quar. 


I 


6 41 ev. 


6 14 mo. 


6 lmo. 


3 51 mo. 


1 


12 3 57 


O Full Moon. 


14 


10 3 mo. 


9 36 mo. 


9 23 mo. 


7 13 mo. 


9 


12 137 


([_ Last Quar. 


21 


51 mo. 


24 mo. 


11 mo. 


10 lev.* 


17 


11 59 32 


(fij) New Moon. 


28 


6 7ev. 


5 40 ev. 


5 27 ev. 


3 17 ev. 


26 


11 57 52 



* 20th day. 



BSaa au s usua oaffiff 



5th Month 


> 


MAY, 






1862. 






IVASHVIIiliE, 


SUN ENTERS 


CHARLES- 






tr. 


Tenn., North 


_ 


TON, South 




M 


H 


Carolina, "Vir- 


^§S5$** 


Carolina, 






O 


ginia, Ken* 


* //^^Sfe~ 


Georgia, Ala- 


<; 


^ 


s 


tuclty, Mis- 


"^L^^T^^ 


bama, Florida, 


fc 


Fn 


fr, 


souri, Arkan- 


.cH^Mi^t. 


Mississippi, 


IK 


O 


o 


sas, Kansas, 


r- *^ ?T ' — -fair. 


Louisiana,, 




^ 




California. 


21 d. 3 h., mo. 


Texas. 


O 

c 




stm 
kises. 


SUN 
SETS. 


MOON 
SETS. 


MISCELLANEA. 


SL'N 
RISES. 


6L'N 

KFTS. 
H. M. 


MOON 

SETS. 






H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 




H. M. 


M. wr. 


s. o 


T 


1 


5 9 


6 45 


9 35 


Sts. Philip and James. 


5 14 


6 40 


9 20 


n 8 


F 


2 


5 7 


6 46 


10 22 




5 13 


6 41 


10 13 


20 


S 


Q 


5 6' 1 


6 47 


11 6 




5 12 


6 41 


10 58 


2B 2 



6 48 
6 49 
6 50 
6 50 
6 51 
6 52 
6 53 



11 46 
morn. 

22 
55 



2d Sunday after Easter. 
[and Ark. sec, 1861. 



yFirst Quarter. Tenn. 



Bloe'de of Va. begun, '61. 
St. Louis massacre, 1861. 



5 11 

5 10 
5 9 
5 9 
5 8 
5 7 
5 6 



6 42 
6 43 
6 43 
6 44 
6 45 
6 46 
6 46 



11 39 

morn. 
16 

51 

1 23 
1 57 
•>. PA 



14 

26 

ft 8 

21 

19 

.=£= 3 



s 


Hi 


4 59 


6 54 


3 3 


M 


12 


4 58 


6 55 


3 36 


T 


13 


4 57 


6 55 


■rises. 


W 


14 


4 56 


6 56 


8 24 


T 


15 


4 55 


6 57 


9 26 


F 


16 


4 54 


6 58 


10 21 


,3 


17 


4 54 


6 59 


11 9 



3d Sun. afterEaster. Block- 
ade of Chariest'n, 1861. 
^\Full Moon. 



15 5 


6 47 


3 7 


! 5 5 


6 48 


3 42 


i5 4 


6 48 


rises. 


|5 3 


6 49 


8 15 


15 2 


6 50 


9 17 


|5 2 


6 51 


10 13 


|5 1 


6 51 


11 3 



16 

"I 1 
16 

/ 2 

16 

V? 1 
15 



s 


1? 


4 53 


7 





11 49 


M 


19 


4 52 


7 





morn. 


T 


20 


4 51 


7 


1 


23 


W 


21 


4 51 


V 


o 


53 


T 


22 


4 50 


7 


3 


1 21 


F 


23 


4 50 


7 




1 49 


S 


24 


4 49 


7 


4 


2 17 



4th Sunday after Easter. 
f£h [seceded, 18-61. 

Uct^Last Quarter. N. C. 



[Federals, 1861 
Alexandria occupied by 



5 


6 52 


11 44 


5 


6 53 


morn. 


4 59 


6 53 


20 


4 59 


6 54 


52 


4 58 


6 55 


1 21 


4 58 


6 55 


1 51 


4 57 


6 56 


2 20 



14 

27 

X 10 
23 

<Y> 5 
17 



s 


25 


4 48 


7 5 


2 47 


M 


26 


4 48 


7 6 


3 20 


T 


27 


4 47 


7 6 


3 56 


W 


28 


4 47 


7 7 


sets. 


T 


29 


4 47 


7 8 


8 22 


F 


30 


4 46 


7 8 


9 5 


S 


31 


4 46 


7 9 


9 44 



5th Sunday after Easter. 

[1861. 
N". 0. & Mobile blockaded, 
(111). New Moon. 
Iff ^ 



Ascension Day. 

[1861. 
Battle at Fairfax C. H.,Va., 



4 56 


6 57 


2 52 


4 56 


6 57 


3 26 


4 56 


6 58 


4 4 


4 55 


6 59 


sets. 


4 55 


6 59 


8 13 


4 55 


7 


8 57 


4 54 


7 


9 37 



29 
11 
23 
5 
17 
29 
05 11 



« 



n 



MOON'S PHASES. 



5 First Quar. 
O Full Moon. 
(£ Last Quar. 
# New Moon. 



Chiles ton. 


H. 


M. 




10 


3 


ev. 


5 


39 


ev. 


10 


20 


mo. 


11 


13 


mo. 



9 36 ev. 

5 12 ev. 

9 53 mo. 

10 46 mo. 



New Orleans. 


h 


M. 




9 


23 


ev. 


4 


59 


ev. 


9 


40 


mo. 


10 


33 


mo. 



S. FitAwcrsco. 



7 13 ev. 
2 49 ev. 

7 30 mo. 

8 23 mo. 



Sun on Meridian 
or Noon mark. 



D. 


H. M. S. 


1 


11 56 57 


9 


11 56 13 


17 


11 56 7 


25 


11 56 36 



6th Month, 



JUNE, 



1862. 







NASHVILLE, 


SUN ENTERS 


CHARLES- 






H 


Tenn., IVortli 


■» 


TON, Soutli 


H 


w 




Carolina, Vir- 


a£T 


Carolina, 


< 

1-1 


H 


ginia, Ken- 


-ste^fcilVrrrw. 


Georgia, Ala- 


£ 


« 


tucky, Mis- 


'-^ffygdih^ 


bama, Florida, 


ft 


EM 

o 


o 


souri, Arkan- 




Mississippi, 
Louisiana, 


m 








1" 

G 


< 
a 


Califomia. 


21 d. 12 h. 


Texas. 


o 


SUN 


SLM [ MOON 


MISCELLANEA. 


SUM 


SUN 


MOON 








RISKS. 


SRTS. | SETS. 




RISKS. 












H. M. ! i' M. H. M. 




H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


». ° 


S 


1 


4 45;7 lvj 


10 19 


Battle of Aquia Creek be-, '4 54 


7 1 


10 13 


qj 23 


M 


2 i 


4 457 10 


10 49 


[gun, 1861. ,|4 54 


7 1 


10 44 


SI, 5 


T 


3! 


4 44!7 11 


11 15 


Jeff. Davisb., 1808. Bat. at 1 


4 53 


7 2 


11 12 


18 


W 


4 


4 44 ! 7 12 


11 43 


[Phillippa, W Va., '61.1 


4 53 


7 3 


11 42 


"X 


T 


5 


4 44)7 12 


mom.| 


"*ij. First Q. Bat. atPig's! 


4 53 


7 3 


morn. 


13 


F 


6 


4 44|7 13 


18! 


vj§i Pat. Henry [Ft., '61,! 


4 53 


7 4 


19 


27 


S 


7 


4 44 


7 13 


54' 


[d., 1799. 1 


4 53 


7 4 


57 


=a» 10 



S 


8 


4 44 


7 14 


1 29; 


M 


9 


4 44 


7 14 


2 6l 


T 


10 


4 43 


7 15 


2 521 


W 


11 


4 43 


7 15 


3 49] 


T 


12 


4 43 


7 16 


rises. 1 


F 


13 


4 43 


7 16 


8 55 


S 


14 


4 43 


7 16 


9 38J 



Whit-Sunday, Jackson d.. 
[1845! 
Bat, of Great Bethel, '61. 
St. Barnabas. 
Gov. Jackson, of Mo., issues 
[his proclamation, '01 



i4 53 


7 


5 


1 33 


4 52 


7 


5 


2 12 


4 52 


7 


6 


2 59 


4 52 


7 


6 


3 58 


4 52 


7 


6 


rises. 


4 52 


7 


7 


8 48 


4 52 


7 


7 


9 33 



trv 10 



no 
10 
25 
9 
23 



s 


15 


4 43 


7 17 


10 16| 


M 


16 


j4 43 


7 17 


10 50 


T 


17 


|4 44 


7 17 


11 21 


W 


18 


14 44 


7 18 


11 49 


T 


19 


4 44 


7 18 


morn. 


F 


20 


4 44 


7 18 


15 


S 


21 


4 44 


7 19 


43 



Trinity Sun. Polk d., '61 
Battle at Vienna, 1861. 

/fj* Last Quarter. 
l^R. H. Leed., 1861. 
H. S. Legare d., 1843. 



4 53 


7 


8 


10 12 


4 53 


7 


8 


10 48 


4 53 


7 


8 


11 21 


4 53 


7 


9 


11 50 


4 53 


7 


9 


morn. 


4 53 


7 


9 


18 


4 53 


7 


9 


47 



3£ 6 
19 

°f 2 
15 
26 



s 


22[ 


4 44 


7 19 


1 15 


M 


523! 


4 45 


7 19 


1 50 


T 


J24j 


4 45 


7 19 


2 30 


W 


i25i 


4 45 


7 19 


3 15 


T 


126 


4 46 


7 19 


4 8 


F 


,27 


4 46 


7 19 


sets. 


S 


,28 


4 46 


7 19 


8 14 



1st Sunday after Trinity. 
Nativity of St. John Baptist, 

|&iNew Moon. 

If Madison d., 1836. 



4 54 


7 9 


1 21 


4 54 


7 10 


1 57 


4 54 


7 10 


2 38 


4 54 


7 10 


3 23 


4 55 


7 10 


4 17 


4 55 


7 10 


sets. 


4 55 


7 10 


8 7 



8 8 
21 

rr 2 

15 
27 



4 47 7 
4 47 7 



8 50m. Peter. 

9 22' 



Clay d. 



1852. 4 56 7 10 
4 56 7 10 



Moon's Phases. 



3 First Quar. 
O Full Moon. 
(£ Last Quar. 
gift New Moon. 



Charleston. 



9 22 mo. 

57 mo. 
9 47 ev. 

1 34 mo. 



Nashville. 



8 55 mo. 

30 mo. 

9 20 ev. 

1 7 mo. 



New Orleans. 



8 42 mo. 
17 mo. 

9 7ev. 
54 mo. 



S. Francisco. 



6 32 mo. 
10 7ev.* 

6 57 ev. 
10 44 ev.f 



* llth day. 




1 26th day. 



IVASHVILLK. 
Tenii., North' 
Carolina, Vir- 
ginia, Iven- 

tuclty, Mis- 
souri, Arkan- 
sas, Kansas, 
California. 



I| 



SUN MOON 

f KTS, SETS. 



4 47 

4 48 
4 4b 
4 49 
4 49 



7 19 
7 19 
7 19 
7 19 
7 19 



9 51 
10 20 

10 50 

11 22 
11 58 



S [J N EN T K It 8 




22 d. 11 h., ev. 



MISCKLLANEA. 



['26. Monroed.,'31. 

[ence. Jefferson d., 

nfk First Q. Independ- 



CHARLES- 
TON, South 
Carolina, 
Georgia, Ala- 
bama, Florida, 
Mississippi, 
Louisiana, 
Texas, 



SUN 
RISKS. 



0/ 

57 
4 57 
4 58 
4 58 



9 50 

10 20 

10 52 

11 26 



10 m 



orn. 



SI 27 
rrj£ 10 



s 


6i 


4 50 


7 19 


morn. 


M 


i 


4 50 


7 19 


40 


T 


8 


4 51 


7 18 


1 29 


W 


9 


4 52 


7 18 


2 27 


T 


10 


4 52 


7 18 


3 39 


F 


11 


4 53 


7 17 


rises, 


S 


12 


4 53 


7 17 


7 41 



3rf Sun. after Trinity. 3 
[Marshall d., 1835. 

Z. Taylor died, 1850. 

,<T?\.Full Moon. 



14 59 


7 10 


3 


4 59 


7 10 


47 


5 


7 10 


1 37 


5 


7 9 


2 36 


5 1 


7 9 


3 48 


5 1 


7 9 


rises. 


5 2 


7 8 


7 38 



in, s 

19 

/ 4 

18 
tf 3 
18! 



s 


13 


4 54 


7 17 


8 34 


M 


14 


4 55 


7 16 


9 14 


T 


15 


4 55 


7 16 


9 44 


W 


16 


4 56 


7 15 


10 12 


T 


17 


4 57 


7 15 


10 42 


F 


18 


4 57 


7 14 


11 13 


S 


19 


4 58 


7 14 


11 47 



4th Sunday after Trinity. 



/Jq^ Last Quarter. Battle 
UJ^ [at Bull Bun, 1861. 



5 2 


7 


8 


8 82 


5 3 


7 


8 


9 13 


5 4 


7 


7 


9 45 


5 4 


7 


7 


10 15 


5 5 


7 


7 


10 46 


5 5,7 


6 


11 19 


5 6 


7 


6 


11 54 



X 



17 



14 



T 11 

8."e 



s 


20 


4 59 


7 13 


morn. 


M 


21 


4 59 


7 13 


25 


T 


22 


5 


7 12 


1 7 


W 


23 


5 1 


7 11 


1 56 


T 


24 


5 2 


7 11 


2 50 


F 


25 


5 2 


7 10 


8 49 


S 


26 


5 3 


7 9 


sets. 



5th Sunday after Trinity. 
Battle of Manassas, '01. 



© 



St. James. 
?# New Moon. 



5 7 


7 


5 


morn. 


5 7[7 


5 


33 


5 8j7 


4 


1 15 


5 9 7 


4 


2 5 


5 9 


7 


3 


2 59 


5 10 


7 


o 


3 57 


5 11 


7 


2 


sets. 



17 

29 

n ii i 

23 
9Z 5 
17 
29 



s 


27 


5 4 


7 8 


7 21 


M 


28 


5 5 


7 8 


7 55 


T 


29 


5 6 


7 6 


8 25 


W 


30 


5 6 


7 6 


8 53 


T 


31 


5 7 


7 5 


9 23' 



6th Sunday after Trinity. 



5 11 
5 12 
5 13 
5 13 
5 14 



7 1 
7 
7 
6 59 
6 58 



7 17 

7 53 

8 24 

8 51 

9 26 



SI 11 

24 

^ 7 
20 

=2= 4 



Moon's Phasks. 



J First Quar. 
O Full Moon. 
(£ Last Quar. 
# New Moon. 



Charleston. 



5 29 ev. 

8 19 mo. 

11 57 mo. 

3 53 ev. 



Nashville. 


H. 


M. 




6 


2 


ev. 


7 52 


mo. 


11 


30 


mo. 


3 


26 


ev. 



New Orleans. 


S. Fkancisco. 


Sun on Meridian 
or Noon mark. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


D. 


H. M. S. 


4 49 ev. 


2 39 ev. 


l 


12 3 26 


7 39 mo. 


5 29 mo. 


9 


12 4 49 


11 17 mo. 


9 7 mo. 


17 


12 5 47 


3 13 ev. 


1 3ev. 


25 


12 6 11 





jXASTIVII^K. 




Tewn., North 


-< 


Carolina, Vir- 


-1 


ginia, Ken- 




tucky, Mis- 




souri, Arkan- 




sas, Kansas, 




California. 




RUN 


RUM 


MOON 




RISKS. 


SETS. 


RETS. 




H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


1 


•5 8 


7 4 


9 56 





5 9 


7 3 


10 34 



SUN ENTERS 




23 d. 5 1)., mo. 



MISCELLANEA. 



I First Quarter. 



CHARLES- 
TON, South 
Carolina, 
Georgia, Ala- 
bama, Florida 
Mississippi, 
Louisiana, 
Texas. 



SUN 


HUN 


■RISKS. 


SKTS. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


5 15 


6 57 


5 15 


6 57 



10 1 
10 41 



J* 

Hi 
Pi 


t» 


■A 
O 
O 


s- ° 
=2= 17 


n, i 



s 


31 '5 9 


7 2 


11 19 


1th Sunday after Trinity. 


5 16 


56 


11 27 


15 


M 


4 '5 10 


7 1 


morn. 




5 17 


6 55 


morn. 


29 


T 


5-5 11 


7 


15 




5 17 


6 54 


24 


/ 13 


W 


6l ! 5 12 


6 59 


1 15 




5 18 


6 53 


1 24 


28 


T 


7!. 5 12 


6 58 


2 21 




5 19 


52 


2 29 


V? 12 


F 


8i|5 13 


6 57 


3 34 


,<^\ 


5 19 


6 51 


3 41 


2< ; 


S 


9,:5 14 


6 56 


rises. 


\~>' Full Moon. 


15 20 


6 50 


rises. 


AVI- 1 1 
vw -*■ A 



10' io 15 



5 IS 



6 55 


7 12i 


6 54 


7 43j 


6 53 


8 13: 


6 52 


8 43 


6 51 


9 13 


6 49 


9 45 


6 48 


10 22 



8th Sun. after Trinity. Bat. 
[of Oak Hill, Mo., 1861. 



:5 21] 6 49 


7 10 


!5 22 6 48 


7 43 


,5 22 1 6 47 


8 15 


io 23:6 46 


8 46 


|5 24:6 45 


9 18 


!5 24 6 44 


9 51 


|5 25 ! 6 43 


10 30 



-o 
X 9 

22 

<V° 5 

•19 

8 1 

13 



17::5 21 


6 47 


ii 5; 


lS'o 21 


6 46 


11 53! 


19|i5 22 


6 45 


morn. 


201,5 23 


6 43 


45i 


21 ';5 24 


6 42 


1 41 


22 ,5 25 


6 41 


2 41 


23:|5 25 


6 39 


3 42l 



:-J?pLast Quar. 9th S^ln. 
A;i_, [after Trinity. 



:5 26 


6 42 


11 13 


5 26 


6 41 


12 2 


!o 27 


6 40 


morn. 


|5 28 


6 39 


54 


;5 28 


6 38 


1 49 


5 29 


6 36 


2 48 


!5 80 


6 35 


3 47 



20 

n 7 

19 

35 1 

13 

25 
SI 7 



s 


24 


5 26 


6 38 


4 43j 


M 


25 


5 27 


6 37 


sets. 


T 


26 


5 28 


6 35 


6 59 


W 


27 


5 29 


6 34 


7 30 


T 


28 


5 29 


6 33 


8 4 


F 


29 


5 30 


6 31 


8 42 


S 


30 


5 31 


6 30 


9 25! 



4 43] ||£2fe,/S7. Bartholomew. 



•IP 1 New Moon. 

J. "Laurens died, 1782. 



;5 30 


6 34 


4 47 


:5 31 


6 33 


sets. 


5 32 


6 32 


7 


|5 32 


6 30 


7 83 


5 33 


6 29 


8 8 


5 34 


6 28 


8 48 


5 34 


6 27 


9 33 



20 


m> 3 


17 


=2= 


14 


28 


"l 11 



S |31l!5 32 6 29;10 lh\\\\th Sunday after Trinity. ||5 35 ,6 25[10 2 31 26 



Moon's Phasks. 


Charleston. 


Nashville. 


New Orleans. 


S. Francisco. 


Sun 011 Meridian 
01' Noon mark. 




D. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


D. 


H. M. s 


3 First Quar. 


2 


11 33 ev. 


11 «ev. 


10 53 ev. 


8 43 ev. 


1 


12 6 2 


O Full Moon. 


9 


4 83 ev. 


4 6ev. 


3 58 ev. 


1 43 ev. 


9 


12 516 


(£ Last Quar. 


17 


4 27 mo. 


4 Omo. 


3 47 mo. 


1 37 mo. 


17 


12 3 53 


(ft New Moon. 


25 


4 17 mo. 


3 50 mo. 


3 87 mo. 


1 27 mo. 


2o 


12 156 




9th Month, 



SEPTEMBER, 



1862. 











W 


H 


w 


£ 


K 


O 


^ 


J3 


s. 


fc, 


o 


o 


|H 


w 


1l 


~f. 





" 


M 


1 


T 


2 


W 


3 


T 


4 


F 


5 


S 


61 



NASHVILLE, 
Tenn., North | 
Carolina, Vir- 
ginia, Ken- 
tucky, Mis- 
souri, Arkan-, 
gas, Kausas, 
California. 



SUN E N TEES 



SUN 


SUN 


KISE3. 


SETS. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


5 33 


6 27 


^ on 


6 26 


5 34 


6 24 


5 35 


6 23 


5 36 


6 21 


5 37 


6 20 



11 13 
morn. 

17 

1 26 

2 36 

3 47 




23 d. 2 h., mo. 



MISCELLANEA. 



CHARLES- 
TON, South 
Carolina, 
Georgia, Al a- 
bama, Florida, 
Mississi ppi, 
Louisiana, 
Texas. 



Tift, First Quarter. 

Bat. at Ft. Scott, Mo., '01. 
[Columbus by Confed.,'61. 
Paducah seized by Feds. 



RISES. 


SUN 
SF.TS. 


M'.n i.N 
SKTS. 




H. -M. 


H. M. ' H. M. [ ,, O 


5 36 


6 21 


11 22 / 10 


36 


6 2:i 


morn. 


24 


5 37 
38' 


6 22 
6 20 


20 

1 33 


VJ 8 


5 38 
5 39 


6 1H 

6 18 


2 42 

3 01 


cs o 

20 



S 


7 


5 37 


6 19 


4 59; 


12th Sunday after Trinity. 


|5 40 


16 


5 1 


¥ 4 


M 


8 


5 38 


6 17 


rises. 1 


/^\Full Moon. 


i5 40 


6 15 


rises 


18 


T 


9 


5 39 


6 16 


6 49| 


'<£) [1861. 


15 41 


6 14 


6 52 


f .1 


W 


10 


5 40 


6 14 


7 20; 


Bat.atCarnifaxFerry,Va., 


j5 41 6 12 


7 25 


14 


T 


11 


5 40 


6 13 


7 54! 


F. Grundy born, 1777. 


|5 42. 11 


8 


27 


F 


12 


5 41 


6 11 


8 30; 


Md. legislators arrested. 


5 43|0 10 


8 37 


X 9 


S 


13! 


5 42 


6 10 


9 10! 


[1861. 


\o 43 ! 6 8 


9 18 


21 



S 


14 


15 43 


6 8 


9 53! 


M 


15 


lo 43 


6 7 


10 43' 


T 


16 5 44 


6 5 


11 38 


W 


171 15 45 


6 4 


morn.; 


T 


18 15 46 


6 2 


36! 


F 


1915 47 


6 1 


1 36, 


S 


20 


|5 47 


5 59 


2 38| 



13th Sunday after Trinity, 
/fj^ Last Quarter. 



1737. 



5 44 1 6 7 


10 1 


n 3 


5 4016 


10 52 10 


5 45:6 4 


11 46 


27 


5 46 : 6 3 


morn. 


93 9 ! 


5 47 6 2 


43 [ 21 ! 


5 47 6 


i 41 a 3 


5 48 '5 59 


2 42 


16 



S 


21 ;5 48 


5 58 


3 41 


St. Mattheio. Lexington, 


,0 49 


58 


3 43, 29 


M 


22 5 49 


5 56 


4 44 


[Mo., captured, 1861. 


j5 49 


5 50 


4 40 m? 12 


T 


23 5 50 


5 55 


sets. 


■ifi!!). New Moon. 


io 5U 


5 55 


sets. ! 20 


W 


24; 5 51 


5 53 


6 14 i i'<!ii?f J. Marshall b., 1755. 


15 51 


5 54j 6 18 =2= 9 


T 


25; |5 51 


5 52 


6 50! j 


5 51 


5 52 


6 56 24 


F 


26; [5 52 


5 51 


7 32|j 


|o 52 


5 51 


7 39 th, 8 


S 


27||5 53 


5 49 


8 21| Moultrie d., 1805. 


15 52 


5 50 


8 29 22 



28; 1 
29; '.5 

305 



54 


5 48 


9 18 : 


55 


5 46 


10 -iv 


55 5 45 


11 28: 



15th Sunday after Trinity. 
^JM^St. Michael and All- 
sjp First Quar. [Anaels. 



15 53:0 48' 9 271/ 
!5 54,5 47|10 29| 21 
]5 55 ;o 46; 11 36 VJ 5 



moon's phases. 


Charleston. 


Nashville. 


New Ohi.hans 


S. Francisco. 




u. 


H. M. 


H. M- 


h. u. 


H. M. 


J) First Quai-. 


1 


4 44 mo. 


4 17 mo. 


4 4 mo. 


1 54 mo. 


O Full Moon. 


8 


2 48 mo. 


2 21 mo. 


2 8 mo. 


11 58ev.* 


(£ Last Quar. 


15 


11 3 ev. 


10 36 ev. 


10 23 ev. 


8 13 ev. 


fU New Moon. 


23 


3 29 ev. 


3 2ev. 


2 49 ev. 


39 ev. 


J) First Quar. 


30 


10 46 mo. 


10 19 mo. 


10 6 mo. 


7 56 mo. 



>uti on Meridian 
or Noon mark. 



1 11 5953 

9 11 57 16 
17 11 54 29 
25 11 51 41 



; 7th day. 



wrqy ;*■«■ ■ f, i b, ^. n wim^f p .iJ i 



10th Month, 



OCTOBER, 



NASHVILLE, 
Temi., North 
Carolil&a, Vir- 
ginia, ]r£en- 

luckj, Mis- 
souri, ArScan- 
gas, Kansas, 
California. 



lii-5 56 

2|':5 57 

3 ! ;5 58 

4 '5 59 



SUN 


MOON 


SKTS. 


SETS. 


M, M. 


H. M. 


5 43 


morn. 


5 42 


37 


5 40 


1 46 


5 39 


2 53 



SUN ENTERS 




23 d. 10 h., mo. 



MISCELLANEA. 



[1861. 

Battle at Greenbrier, Va., 



CHARLES- 
TON, South 
Carolina, 
Georgia, Ala- 
l>am a, Florida, 
Mississippi, 
Louisiana, 
Texas. 



SUN 


SUN 


RISES. 


NETS. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


5 5-5 


5 44 


5 50 


■5 43 


5 57 


5 42 


5 57 


5 40 



43 

1 50 

2 56 



Vj 19 

m 3 

16 
X 



5;|6 
G\'Q 

7,J6 
81,0 

n'io 

10, 6 
ll; : 6 



o< 

5 36 
5 35 
5 33 
5 32 
5 30 
5 29 



3 58: >16th Sunday after Trinity. :i5 58 ! 5 39 

!o 59 jo 38 



°ii^ 
rises. 'f'JSy Full Moon 

6 1: 

6 35j 

7 14| 



Jasper & Pulaski d., 1779. 6 

Chas. Lewis d., 1774. J6 

58j Meriwether Lewis d. 1809. JJG 



5 36 
5 35 
5 34 
5 33 
5 31 



3 59 

4 59 
rises 

6 6 

6 42 

7 22 

8 6 



13 

27 
f 10 

22 

8 5 
17 

29 



s 


12i 


6 


5 28 


8 47 


17 th Sunday after Trinity. 


6 8 


5 30 


8 56 


17 11 


M 


13! 


6 6 


5 26 


9 40 




6 4 


5 29 


9 48 


23 


T 


14J6 7 


5 25 


10 35 




6 5 


5 28 


10 43 


25 5 


W 


15JJ6 8 


5 24 


11 32 


/S^ Last Quarter. 


6 5 


5 26 


11 38 


17 


T 


16:0 9 


5 22 


morn. 


6 6 


5 25 


morn. 


29 


F 


17.;6 10 


5 21 


30 




6 7 


5 24 


35 


Q n 


S 


18. JO 11 


5 20 


1 30 


St. Luke the Evangelist. 


6 8 


5 23 


1 34 


23 



19: 


6 12 


5 18 


2 321 


2016 13 


5 17 


3 35 1 


21:j6 14 


5 16 


4 40 


22: !6 15 


5 15 


5 46 


93: 


6 16 


5 13 


sets. 


24l 


6 16 


5 12 


6 23 


25! 


6 17 


5 11 


7 25 



18th Sunday after Trinity. 

Bats. oi'Leesb'g,Frederick 

[town, &Rock Castle, '61 

#||6)i 

H0 New Moon. 

Dixon H. Lewis d., 1848. 



6 8 


5 22 


2 34 


6 9 


5 21 


3 35 


6 10 


5 20 


4 38 


6 11 


5 18 


5 42 


6 12 


5 17 


sets. 


6 12 


5 16 


6 31 


6 13 


15 


7 33 



20 

:£= 4 

18 
"I 2 

17 
/ 2 



s 


26! 


6 18 


5 10 


8 31 


M 


27! 


6 19 


5 9 


9 38 


T 


28! 


6 20 


5 8 


10 45 


W 


29 


G 21 


5 6 


11 51 


T 


30 


6 22 


5 5 


morn. 


F 


31 


2o 


5 4 


54 



19th Sunday after Trinity. 

Sts. Simon and Jude. 
First Quarter. 
[States and Mo., '61. 
Alliance bet. Confederate 



6 14 
6 15 



6 18 



5 10 
5 9 




moon's phases. 


Charleston. 


Nashville. 


New Orleans. 


S. Feancisco. 


Sun on Meridian 
or Noon mark. 


D. 




h. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


D. 




/ 


O Full Moon. 


3 29 ev. 


3 2 ev. 


2 49 ev. 


39 ev. 


1 


11 49 41 


15 


(£ Last Quar. 


6 20 ev. 


5 53 ev. 


5 40 ev. 


3 30 ev. 


9 


11 47 20 


23 


® New Moon. 


2 15 mo. 


1 48 mo. 


1 35 mo. 


11 25ev.* 


17 


11 45 27 


29 


5 First Quar. 


6 34 ev. 


6 7 ev. 


5 54 ev. 


3 44 ev. 


25 


11 44 11 



' 22d day. 



11th Month, 



NOVEMBER, 



1862. 



NASHVILLK. 
Tenn., North 
Carolina, Vir- 
ginia, Ken- 
lucky, Mis- 
souri, Arkan- 
sas, Kansas, 
California. 



SUN SUN MOON 

RISES. SETS. SETS. 



H. M. 

6 24 



H, M. 

5 3 



H. M. 

1 54 



SUN 


ENTERS 


CHARLES- 
TON, South 
Carolina, 
Georgia, Ala- 
bama, Florida, 
Mississippi, 
Louisiana, 
Texas. 


o 

< 


22 d. 


7 h., mo. 


a. 

CO 

o 
o 


MISCELLANEA. 


SUN 
RISES. 


SUN 

SKTS. 


MOON 

SETS. 




All Saints' 


Day. 


6 19 


5 8 


1 55 


X lo 



s 


21)6 25 


5 2 


2 54 


M 


3||6 20 


5 1 


3 53 


T 


4j|6 27 


5 


4 52 


W 


5; 6 28 


4 59 


5 50 


T 


66 29 


4 58 


rises. 


F 


7 :o 30 


4 57 


5 58 


S 


8!!6 31 


4 57 


6 43 



20th Sun. after Trinity. Mo. 
[seceded, 1861. 



<~S\Full Moon. 
OgyBat. Belmont.,'61. Pt. 
[Royal cap. by Fed. ,'61. 



6 20 1 
6 21] 
6 221 
6 23: 
6 24 i 
6 2-1 ! 



2 54 

3 51 

4 48 

5 54 
rises. 

6 6 
6 51 



<V> 6 
19 

8 1 

13 

26 

n 8 



s 


9 


16 32 


4 56 


7 33 


M 


10 


6 33 


4 55 


8 27 


T 


11 


6 34 


4 54 


9 23 


W 


12 


6 35 


4 53 


10 20 


T 


13 


6 36 


4 53 


11 18 


F 


14 


6 37 


4 52 


morn. 


S 


15 


6 38 


4 51 


16 



21st Sunday after Trinity. 
Robert Y. Hayne b., 1791. 



(^ [d , 1832. 

\^t^ Last Quar. C. Carroll 
Bridges burned in E. Tenn. 



16 26|5 

! 6 



it p 
28 5 
29 1 5 



30J4 59 



|6 31:4 

[6 32 '4 



7 


41 


8 


35 


9 


30 


10 


26 


11 


22 


morn. 





19 



19 
25 1 

13 

25 
SI 7 

19 
«K 2 



s 


16 


6 39 


4 50 


1 15 


M 


17 


6 40 


4 50 


2 17 


T 


18 


6 42 


4 49 


3 23 


W 


19 


6 43 


4 49 


4 29 


T 


20 


6 44 


4 48 


5 36 


F 


21 


6 45 


4 47 


sets. 


S 


22 


6 46 


4 47 


5 59 



22d Sunday after Trinity. 



['61. Ky. Con. sec, '61. 
Fed. raid into E. shore, Va., 
iffe. New Moon. [1861. 
W Fight at Pensacola, 



6 33 
6 33 
6 34 



6 35 4 56 



6 36 
6 37 
6 38 



1 16 

2 18 

3 20 

4 34 

5 30 

sets. 

6 8 



14 

28 

=2= 12 
26 

"L 10 

25 

/ 10 



s 


23 


6 47 


4 46 


7 8 


M 


24 


6 48 


4 46 


8 17 


T 


25 


6 49 


4 46 


9 26 


W 


26 


6 49 


4 45 


10 34 


T 


27 


6 50 


4 45 


11,39 


F 


28 


6 51 


4 45 


morn. 


S 


29 


6 52 


4 45 


42 



23rf Sunday after Trinity. 
Z. Taylor born, 1784. 



n First Quarter. 



6 39 


4 54 


7 16 


25 


|6 40 


4 54 


8 24 


Vj 10 


6 41 


4 54 


9 32 


24 


6 42 


4 53 


10 38 zx 9 | 


6 43 


4 53 


11 43| 23 


6 43 


4 53 


morn.;}£ 7 ; 


6 44 


4 53 


42 


20 



S 1 301)6 53 4 44] 1 42\\St. Andrew. Advent. )|6 45 4 53| 1 40|7> 3 

Sun on Meridian 
or Noon mark. 



Moon's Phases. 



3 First Quar. 
O Full Moon. 
(£ Last Quar. 

New Moon., 



Charleston. 



7 34 mo. 
44 ev. 
54 ev. 
4 39 mo. 



7 7 mo. 
17 ev. 
27 ev. 
4 12 mo. 



New Orleans. 


h. 


M. 




6 


54 


mo. 





4 


ev. 





14 


ev. 


3 


59 


mo. 



S. Feancisco. 



4 44 mo. 

9 54 mo. 

10 4 mo. 

1 49 mo. 



11 43 42 
11 43 58 
11 45 7 
11 47 9 



12th Month, 



DECEMBER, 



1862. 



M 
T 
W 
T 
F 
S 





NASHVILLE, 


SUN ENTERS 




Teiin., Sorth 


--5 *^Sk 




Carolina, Vir- 


i|/ ^^^ 


-' 


ginia., Ken- 


JSc-r^&iv 


=i 


tucky, Mis- 


Ispi^)^^. 




souri, Arkan- 


^^^^ 




s»s, Kansas, 


aE^3u._ -3** 




California. 


21 d. 8 h., ev. 




LISES. 


SUN 
SETS. 


MOON 
SETS. 


MISCELLANEA. 




H. M. 


H, M, 


H, M. 




1 


54 


4 44 


2 41 




Oj 


6 55 


4 44 


3 38 




3 


6 56 


4 44 


4 34 




4 


57 


4 44 


5 28 




6 


6 58 


4 44 


6 20 


Gh 


6 


G 59 


4 44 


rises. 


V-^'Full Moon. 



CHARLES- 

TOBT, South 

Carolina, 

Georgia, Ala- 

bania,Plorida 7 

Mississippi, 

Louisiana, 

Texas. 



SUN 


SUM 


MOON 


RISES. 


SKTS> 


SETS. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


6 46 


4 52 


2 88 


6 47 


4 52 


3 33 


6 48 


4 52 


4 28 


6 48 


4 52 


5 21 


6 49 


4 52 


6 12 


6 50 4 52 


rises. 



«y3 I -j 

~lv 

22 

n "-i 

15 <l 



$ 


7' 


6 59 


4 44 


6 13 


M 


8 ! ;7 


4 44 


7 9 


T 


9 


7 1 


4 44 


8 5 


W 


10 


7 2 


4 44 


9 1 


T 


11 


7 3 


4 44 


9 58 


F 


12 


7 3 


4 45 


10 50 


S 


13 


7 4 


4 45 


11 57 



1st Sunday in Advent. 
H. Laurens d., 1792. 



G 51 
6 52 
6 52 
6 53 
6 54 
6 55 
6 55 



9 

10 

28 j 

m io 



a 



14: 


7 


5 4 45 


morn. 


15, |7 


5 


4 45 


57 


ic!j7 


6 


4 46 


1 58 


17|i7 


7 


4 46 


3 2 


18! 


7 


7 


4 46 


4 9 


19 


7 


8 


4 47 


5 18 


20| 


7 


8 


4 47 


6 28 



/Jcf* Last Quar. Wasliing- 
VOL, [ton d., 1799. 



,,ai! ) ,F.Grundyd.,'40. ['60. 
Ill' New Moon. S.C.sec, 



i6 56 


4 54 


morn. 


6 57 


4 54 


55 


6 57 


4 54 


1 54 


6 58 


4 55 


2 57 


6 58 


4 55 


4 2 


6 59 


4 56 


5 10 


7 


4 56 


6 19 



24 

=2= 7 

21 
rti 4 

19 
/ 4 

19 



s 


21: 7 9 


4 48 


sets. 


M 


22, ,7 9 


4 48 


6 49 


T 


23,7 10 


4 49 


& 2 


W 


24;7 10 


4 49 


9 13 


T 


25 7 11 


1 50 


10 21 


F 


26j|7 11 14 50 


11 27 


S 


27Ji7 12 


4 51 


morn. 



St. Thomas. 3d Sunday in 
\_Advent. 



Christmas Day. 

3S(. Stephen. [Ev. 

First Quar. St. John 



7 


4 57 


sets. 


7 1 


4 57 


6 55 


7 1 


4 58 


8 7 


7 2 


4 58 


9 16 


7 2 


4 59 


10 22 


7 2 


4 59 


11 26 


7 3 


5 


morn.. 



T# 4 

18 

2? 3 

18 

X S 

16 
29 



28] J 12 


4 52 


28 


29:17 12 


4 52 


1 24 


30jJ7 13 


4 53 


2 17 


31i!7 13 


4 54 


3 8 



Innocents. 



7 3 


5 1 


25 


7 4 


5 1 


1 19 


7 4 


5 2 


2 11 


7 4 


5 3 


3 1 



V 12 
25 

« " 

20 



moon's phases. 




O Full Moon. 


p. 
6 


(£ Last Quar. 


14 


f} New Moon. 


20 


J) First Quar. 


27 



Charleston. 



17 mo. 
14 mo. 
44 ev. 
24 ev. 



1 50 mo. 

4 47 mo. 
11 17 ev. 

5 57 ev. 



* 5th day. 



New Orleans 


h. 


M. 




l 


37 


mo. 


4 


34 


mo. 


11 


4 


ev. 


5 


44 


ev. 



S. Francisco. 



11 27 ev.* 
2 24 mo. 
S 54 ev. 
S 34 ev. 



S«B cm Meridian' 
or Noon mark. 



1>.. 


H. M. s. 


1 


11 49 12 


9 


11 52 32 


17 


11 56 20 


25 


12 18 



HISTORY 



OF THE 



Jformafa of \\t $m\\mx (bmithmq. 



The independence of the Southern Confederate States, 
commenced by the withdrawal of the State of South Caro- 
lina from the old Federal Union of the United States. The 
ordinance of secession was passed on December 20th, 1860, 
by a unanimous vote. The withdrawal of South Carolina 
from the old Union was followed successively by the States 
of Florida, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and Louisiana. 
A convention of delegates from the six seceding States 
assembled in Congress at Montgomery, Alabama, to organize 
a Provisional Government, on the 4th day of February, 
1861. The Hon. R. M. Barnwell, of South Carolina, was 
appointed temporary chairman. 

A. R. Lamar, Esq., of Georgia, was then appointed tem- 
porary Secretary, and the deputies from the several States 
represented, presented their credentials in alphabetical order, 
and signed their names to the roll of the Convention. 



The following is the list : 



ALABAMA. 

R. W. Walker, 
R. H. Smith, 
J. L. M. Curry, 
W. P. Chilton, 
S. F. Hale Colon, 
J. McRae, 
John Gill Shorter, 
David P. Lewis, 
Thomas Fearn. 
2 



Howell Cobb, 
F. S. Bartow, 
M. J. Crawford, 
B. A. Nisbet, 
B. H. Hill, 
A. R. Wright, 
Thomas R. R. Cobb, 
A. H. Kenan, 
A. H. Stephens. 



MISSISSIPPI. 

W. P. Harris, 
Walter Brooke, 
N. S. Wilson, 
A. M. Clayton, 
W. S. Barry, 
J. T. Harrison. 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 

R. B. Rhett, 
R. W. Barnwell, 
(17) 



18 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

FLORIDA. LOUISIANA. SOUTH CAROLINA. 

James B. Owens, John Perkins, Jr., L. M. Keitt, 

J. Patten Anderson, A. Declonet, James Chesnut, Jr., 

Jackson Morton, (not Charles M. Conrad, C. G. Memminger. 

present.) D. F. Kenner, W. Porcher Miles, 

Georgia. G. E. Sparrow, Thomas J. Withers, 

Bobert Toombs, Henry Marshall. W. W. Boyce. 

The Constitution of the Confederate States was adopted 
on Friday, February the 8th. On Saturday, February the 
9th, Congress proceeded to the election of a President and 
Vice-President. The Hon. Jefferson Davis, of Mississippi, 
President, and the Hon. Alexander H. Stephens, of Georgia, 
Vice-President, were elected by a unanimous vote. On 
February the 18th, President Davis was inaugurated Presi- 
dent of the Confederate States, and delivered the following 
address : 

Gentlemen of the Congress of the Confederate States of America, Friends 
and Fellow-citizens : 

Called to the difficult and responsible station of Chief Executive 
of the Provisional Government which you have instituted, I approach 
the discharge of the duties assigned me with an humble distrust of 
my abilities, but with a sustaining confidence in the wisdom of those 
who are to guide and aid me in the administration of public affairs, 
and an abiding faith in the virtue and patriotism of the people. 
Looking forward to the speedy establishment of a permanent gov- 
ernment to take the place of this, and which by its greater moral 
and physical power will be better able to combat with the many 
difficulties which arise from the conflicting interests of separate na- 
tions, I enter upon the duties of the office to which I have been 
chosen, with the hope that the beginning of our career as a confed- 
eracy may not be obstructed by hostile opposition to our enjoyment 
of the separate existence and independence which we have asserted, 
and which, with the blessing of Providence, we intend to maintain. 

Our present condition, achieved in a manner unprecedented in the 
history of nations, illustrates the American idea that governments 
rest upon the consent of the governed, and that it is the right of the 
people to alter and abolish governments whenever they become de- 
structive to the ends for which they were established. The declared 
compact of the Union from which we have withdrawn, was to estab- 
lish justice, ensure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common de- 
fence, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of 
liberty to ourselves and our posterity ; and when, in the judgment 



AND REPOSITORY OP USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 19 

of the sovereign States now composing this confederacy, it has been 
perverted from the purposes for which it was ordained, and ceased to 
answer the ends for which it was established, a peaceful appeal to 
the ballot-box declared that, so far as they were concerned, the gov- 
ernment created by that compact should cease to exist. In this, they 
merely asserted the right which the Declaration of Independence of 
1776 defined to be inalienable. Of the time and occasion of its ex- 
ercise, they as sovereigns were the final judges, each for itself. The 
impartial, enlightened verdict of mankind will vindicate the recti- 
tude of our conduct ; and He who knows the hearts of men will 
judge of the sincerity with which we labored to preserve the govern- 
ment of our fathers in its spirit. 

The right solemnly proclaimed at the birth of the States, and 
which has been affirmed and reaffirmed in the bills of rights of the 
States subsequently admitted into the Union of 1789, undeniably 
recognizes in the people the power to resume the authority delegated 
for the purposes of government. Thus the sovereign States here 
represented, proceeded to form this confederacy ; and it is by the 
abuse of language that their act has been denominated revolution. 
They formed a new alliance, but within each State its government 
has remained. The rights of person and property have not been 
disturbed. The agent through whom they communicated with for- 
eign nations is changed, but this does not necessarily interrupt their 
international relations. Sustained by the consciousness that the 
transition from the former Union to the present confederacy, has not 
proceeded from a disregard on our part of our just obligations or 
any failure to perform every constitutional duty, moved by no inte- 
rest or passion to invade the rights of others, anxious to cultivate 
peace and commerce with all nations, if we may not hope to avoid 
war, we may at least expect that posterity will acquit us of having 
needlessly engaged in it. Doubly justified by the absence of wrong 
on our part, and by wanton aggression on the part of others, there 
can be no cause to doubt the courage and patriotism of the people 
of the Confederate States will be found equal to any measures of de- 
fence which soon their security may require. 

An agricultural people, whose chief interest is the export of a 
commodity required in every manufacturing country, our true policy 
is peace, and the freest trade which our necessities will permit. It 
is alike our interest and that of all those to whom we would sell and 
from whom we would buy, that there should be the fewest practicable 
restrictions upon the interchange of commodities. There can be but 
little rivalry between ours and any manufacturing or navigating 
community, such as the north-eastern States of the American Union. 
It must follow, therefore, that mutual interest would invite good- 
will and kind offices. If, however, passion or lust of dgminion 
should cloud the judgment or inflame the ambition of those States, 
we must prepare to meet the emergency, and maintain by the final 
arbitrament of the sword the position which we have assumed 
among the nations of the earth. 



20 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

We have entered upon a career of independence, and it must be 
inflexibly pursued through many years of controversy with our late 
associates of the Northern States. We have vainly endeavored to 
secure tranquillity and obtain respect for the rights to which we were 
entitled. As a necessity, not a choice, we have resorted to the 
remedy of separation, and henceforth our energies must be directed 
to the conduct of our own affairs, and the perpetuity of the confed- 
eracy which we have formed. If a just perceptien of mutual inte- 
rest shall permit us peaceably to pursue our separate political career, 
my most earnest desire will have been fulfilled. But if this be denied 
us, and the integrity of our territory and jurisdiction be assailed, it 
will but remain for us with firm resolve to appeal to arms, and invoke 
the blessing of Providence on a just cause. 

As a consequence of our new condition, and with a view to meet 
anticipated wants, it will be necessary to provide a speedy and effi- 
cient organization of the branches of the Executive department 
having special charge of foreign intercourse, finance, military af- 
fairs, and postal service. For purposes of defence, the Confederate 
States may, under ordinary circumstances, rely mainly upon their 
militia ; but it is deemed advisable in the present condition of affairs, 
that there should be a well instructed, disciplined army, more nu- 
merous than would usually be required on a peace establishment. I 
also suggest that, for the protection of our harbors and commerce on. 
the high seas, a navy adapted to those objects will be required. 
These necessities have, doubtless, engaged the attention of Congress. 

With a Constitution differing only from that of our fathers in so 
far as it is explanatory of their well known intent, freed from sec- 
tional conflicts, which have interfered with the pursuit of the gen- 
eral welfare, it is not unreasonable to expect that the States from 
which we have recently parted may seek to unite their fortunes to 
ours, under the government which we have instituted. For this 
your Constitution makes adequate provision, but beyond this, if I 
mistake not, the judgment and will of the people are, that union 
with the States from which they have separated is neither practicable 
nor desirable. To increase the power, develop the resources, and 
promote the happiness of the Confederacy, it is requisite there 
should be so much homogeneity that the welfare of every portion 
would be the aim of the whole. Where this does not exist, antago- 
nisms are engendered, which must and should result in separation. 

Actuated solely by a desire to preserve our own rights, and to pro- 
mote our own welfare, the separation of the Confederate States has 
been marked by no aggression upon others, and followed by no do- 
mestic convulsion. Our industrial pursuits have received no check, 
the cultivation of our fields progresses as heretofore, and even 
should we be involved in war, there would be no considerable dimin- 
ution in the production of the staples which have constituted our 
exports, in which the commercial world has an interest scarcely less 
than our own. This common interest of producer and consumer, can 



AND REPOSITORY OP USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 21 

only be intercepted by an exterior force which should obstruct its 
transmission to foreign markets, a course of conduct which would 
be detrimental to manufacturing and commercial interests abroad. 

Should reason guide the action of the government from which we 
have separated, a policy so detrimental to the civilized world, the 
Northern States included, could not be dictated by even a stronger 
desire to inflict injury upon us ; but if it be otherwise, a terrible re- 
sponsibility will rest upon it, and the suffering of millions will bear 
testimony to the folly and wickedness of our aggressors. In the 
meantime, there will remain to us, besides the ordinary remedies be- 
fore suggested, the well known resources for retaliation upon the 
commerce of an enemy. 

Experience in public stations of a subordinate grade to this which 
your kindness has conferred, has taught me that care and toil and 
disappointments are the price of official elevation. You will see 
many errors to forgive, many deficiencies to tolerate ; but you shall 
not find in me either want of zeal or fidelity to the cause that is to 
me the highest in hope and of most enduring affection. Your gen- 
erosity has bestowed upon me an undeserved distinction, one which 
I neither sought nor desired. Upon the continuance of that senti- 
ment, and upon your wisdom and patriotism, I rely to direct and 
support me in the performance of the duties required at my hands. 

We have changed the constituent parts, but not the system, of our 
government. The Constitution formed by our fathers is that of 
these Confederate States. In their exposition of it, and in the judi- 
cial construction it has received, we have a light which reveals its 
true meaning. Thus instructed as to the just interpretation of that 
instrument, and ever remembering that all offices are but trusts held 
for the people, and that delegated powers are to be strictly construed, 
I will hope by due diligence in the performance of my diities, though 
I may disappoint your expectation, yet to retain, when retiring, 
something of the good will and confidence which will welcome my 
entrance into office. 

It is joyous, in the midst of perilous times, to look around upon a 
people united in heart, when one purpose of high resolve animates 
and actuates the whole, where the sacrifices to be made are not 
weighed in the balance, against honor, right, liberty, and equality. 
Obstacles may retard, but they cannot long prevent the progress of 
a movement sanctioned by its justice and sustained by a virtuous 
people. Reverently let us invoke the God of our fathers to guide 
and protect us in our efforts to perpetuate the principles which by 
his blessing they were able to vindicate, establish, and transmit to 
their posterity ; and with a continuance of His favor, ever gratefully 
acknowledged, we may hopefully look forward to success, to peace, 
to prosperity. 

On February 1st, 1861, the State of Texas declared her 
independence, by withdrawing from the Union, and uniting 



22 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

her destinies with the new Confederacy. Virginia, Ten- 
nessee, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Missouri, also resumed 
their original sovereignty, and were admitted into the Con- 
federacy. 

The Provisional Government of the Confederate States is 
now drawing to a close. On the 22d day of February, 1862, 
the Southern Confederate States of America will throw off 
the last vestige of its provisional character, and will stand 
before the world in all the aspects and with all the attributes 
of a distinct and sovereign Confederacy ; in outward form, a 
nation — within, a league of independent and coequal sove- 
reignties. Before that day, our right to admittance among 
the recognized nationalities will have been conceded by the 
principal European powers. 



CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA. 

The Presidential term of one year of the Provisional Gov- 
ernment, under the Constitution, began on the 18th day of 
February, 1861, and will expire on the 22d day of February, 
1862. The first election, under the Confederate Constitu- 
tion, for President and Vice President for the first regular 
Presidential term of six years, was held on the 6th day of 
November, 1861, in each State throughout the Confederacy. 



GOVERNMENT OF THE CONFEDERATE STATES. 

JEFFERSON DAVIS, of Miss., President. 

ALEX. H. STEPHENS, of Ga., Vice-President. 

Col. JOSEPH DAVIS, of Miss., Aid to the President. 

Capt. R. JOSSELYN, of Miss., Private Secretary of the President. 

R. M. T. HUNTER, Va., Secretary of State. Wm. M. Browne, Assistant 
Secretary of State. P. P. Dandrige, Chief Clerk. 

C. G. MEMMINGER, S. C, Secretary of the Treasury. P. Clayton, Ga., As- 
sistant Secretary of the Treasury. H. D. Capers, Chief Clerk of the Depart- 
ment. Lewis Cruger, S. C, Comptroller and Solicitor. Boiling Baker, Ga., 1st 
Auditor. W. H. S. Taylor, La., 2d Auditor. Robert Tyler, Va., Register. E. 
C. Elmore, Ala., Treasurer. 



AND REPOSITORY CP USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 23 

J. P. BENJAMIN, La., Secretary of War. A. T. Bledsoe, Va., f'liief Cleric 
of the Department. S. Cooper, Va., Adjutant and Inspector General of tins C. 
S. Army. Lieut. Col. B. Chilton and Capt. J. Withers, s. C, Assistants Adjutant 
and Inspector General. Col. R. Taylor, Ky., < Quartermaster General. Col. A. 
C. Myers, S. C, Assistant Quartermaster General. Lieut. Col. Northrop, S. C., 
Commissary General. Col. J. Gorgas, Va., Chief of Ordnance. Col. S. P. 
Moore, (M.D.,) S. C, Surgeon General. Capt. C. H. Smith, (.M.D.,) Va., Assistant 
Surgeon General. Capt. Leg. G. Capers, (M.D.,) H. C, Chief Clerk of the Med- 
ical Department. Maj. D. Hubbard, Ala., Commissioner of Indian Affairs. 

S. R. MALLORY, Pla., Secretary of the Navy. Com. E. M. Tidball, Va., 
Chief Clerk of the Department. Com. D. N. Ingraham, S. C. Chief of Ord- 
nance, Construction, and Repair. Capt. George Minor, Va., Inspector of Ord- 
nance. Com. L. Rosseau, La., Chief of Equipment, Recruiting Orders, and 
Detail. Capt. W. A. Spotswood, (M.D.,) Va., Chief of Medicine and Surgery. 
Capt. John Debree, Chief of Clothing and Provisions. 

Ex-Gov. BRAGG, N. C, Attorney General. Wade Keys, Ala., Assistant At- 
torney General. R. R. Rhodes, Miss., Commissioner of Patents. G. E. W. 
Nelson, Ga., Superintendent of Public Printing. R. M. Smith, Va., Public 
Printer. 

JOHN H. REAGAN, Texas, Postmaster General. H. S. Offut, Va., Chief 
Contract Bureau. B. N. Clements, Tenn., Chief Appointment Bureau. J. L. 
Harrell, Ala., Chief Finance Bureau. W. D. Miller, Texas, Chief Clerk of De- 
partment. 



POPULATION, RESOURCES, DATES OP SECES- 
SION, ETC., OF THE SOUTHERN STATES AND 
TERRITORIES. 

South Carolina. — Area, 29,385 Square Miles. 

The State was first settled by colonies of French, Oerman, 
and Irish, in 1670 ; adopted the Federal Constitution, 1780. 
Population in 1850, 668,507, including 384,984 slaves. 
Value of exports in 1850, $16,924,250 ; imports, §2,071,139. 
Population in 1860, 715,371, including 407,185 slaves. 

Passed ordinance of secession from the Federal Union, 
December 20th, 1860. 

Florida. — Area, 59,268 Square Miles. 

This State was settled by Spain in 1516 ; was ceded to 
Great Britain, by Spain, in 1763 ; retaken by the Spanish 
in 1781, and ceded, by Spain, to the United States in 1819 ; 
was admitted into the Union in 1845. The Seminole Indian 
War commenced in 1818, and ended in 1842. Value of ex- 



24 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

ports for 1858, $1,877,960 ; imports, $105,998. Population 
in 1850, 87,445, including 39,310 slaves; population in 
1860, 145,694, including 63,809 slaves. 

Passed ordinance of secession, dissolving connection with 
the Federal Union, Jannary 8th, 1861. 

Mississippi. — Area, 47,156 Square Miles. 

Was first settled by the French, at Natchez, in 1716. 
This State, together with part of Georgia, Alabama, and 
Florida, formed the " Mississippi Territory," in 1816 ; ad- 
mitted into the Union as a State in 1817. Population in 
1850, 606,326, including 309,878 slaves; population in 1860, 
887,158, including 479,647 slaves. Mississippi is now the 
largest cotton-growing State in the South. The crop of 
1850 amounted to 485,293 bales; the crop of 1860 was es- 
timated at 670,000 bales, valued at $27,000,000. 

Ordinance of secession passed January 9th, 1861. 

Alabama. — Area, 50,722 Square Miles. 

This State was included in the Mississippi Territory in 
1817 ; admitted into the Federal Union as a State in 1820. 
The chief agricultural product of Alabama is cotton. Ex- 
tensive canebrakes once existed, but they have been greatly 
cleared away. Sugar-cane grows on the south-west neck, 
between Mobile and the Mississippi. Many of the rich 
alluvial tracts yield rice abundantly. Tobacco, also, is pro- 
duced. Indian corn, oats, sweet potatoes, buckwheat, barley, 
flax, and silk, are much cultivated, besides many other grains, 
fruits, and vegetables, and large supplies of live stock of all 
descriptions. 

Mineral Products. — Alabama is rich in great deposits of 
coal, iron, variegated marbles, limestone, and other mineral 
treasures. Gold mines, too, have been found and worked. 
Salt, sulphur, and chalybeate springs abound. 



AND REPOSITORY OP USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 25 

Value of imports in 1850, $619,964 ; exports, $24,790,- 
585. Population in 1850, 771,625, including 343,844 
slaves; population in 1860, 935,917, including 435,473 
slaves. 

Passed ordinance of secession from the Union, January 
11th, 1861. 

GEORGIA. — Area, 58,000 Square Miles. 

This State was settled by Gen. Oglethorpe in 1733; was 
made a royal colony in 1752; adopted the Federal Constitution 
in 1798. Population in 1850, 906,185, including 381,622 
slaves; population in 1860, 1,082,797, including 467,461 
slaves. Imports for 1850,1473,716; exports, §9, 543,519. 

The Comptroller-General of the State of Georgia for the last 
fiscal year, stated that the Western and Atlantic railroad, 
owned exclusively by the State, paid into the State treasury, 
of net earnings, in 1859, 8420,000 ; in 1860, §150,000 ; 
and in 1861, $438,000. Independent of the above valuable 
property, Georgia owns in bank stock and bonds, the amount 
of $958,400. 

The income of the State, from its several sources of rev- 
enue, including the cash balance in the treasury on the 21st 
of October, 1861, $324,106, is $2,279,857 The disburse- 
ments in the same time amount to $1,955,731. 

The State withdrew from the Federal Union, January 
19th, 1861. 

Louisiana. — Area, 41,436 Square Miles. 

This State was settled by the French in 1699 ; was ceded 
to Spain in 1762 ; was purchased by the Federal Union in 
1803 ; admitted into the Federal Union as a State in 1S12. 
Population in 1850, 517,762, including 241,809 slaves. 
Value of exports in 1850, $88,367,962 ; imports, $22,900,- 
821. Population in 1860, 666,431, including 312,186 slaves 



26 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

The wealth of Louisiana has rapidly augmented, and an 
immense area of fertile land is annually taken into cultiva- 
tion, reclaimed from the swamps and the prairies. New Or- 
leans, meanwhile, has advanced with prodigious strides, and 
will now, without a doubt, fulfil the destiny which seemed in 
the past to belong to New York. We confidently expect and 
predict this. Cotton and sugar-cane are the great products 
of this State. 

Passed ordinance of secession from the Federal Union, 
January 26th, 1861. 

Texas.— Area, 237,504 Square Miles— Acres, 152,002,560. 

Was first settled by the Spaniards, in 1690 ; was made 
part of the Mexican Republic in 1826 ; war with Mexico for 
independence commenced in 1833, and ended in 1836 ; as 
an independent State, was admitted into the Federal Union 
in 1845. Her geological survey has developed the exist- 
ence of iron ore, coal, lead, copper, lignite, gypsum, lime- 
stone, marble, potters', pipe, and fire clay, etc. The iron 
and coal promise to be of great future value. 

The revenue of the State, by a recent statement, as de- 
rived from the ad valorem, and poll tax, was $309,726. The 
total school fund reached $3,426,168. Assessment statistics : 

44,233,658 acres land, valued at $83,392,720 

42,3G2 town lots, " 14,137 207 

136,853 negroes, " 85,'63o'748 

284,714 horses, " 14 329 103 

2,617,122 cattle, « lG^^ 

A comparison will at once show the increase in the value 
of each species of property, the aggregate increase of the 
■whole being over thirty millions of dollars, namely : the in- 
crease in negroes, $12,774,820 ; increase inland, 69,477,542- 
increase in cattle, $2,739,421 ; increase in horses, $2,617,502 • 
increase in town lots, $1,388,894 5 increase in .money loaned 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 27 

$513,047 : increase in miscellaneous property, §1,208,812. 
Total increase of all taxable property, from 1858 to 1859, 
$30,721,438. We should here remark that only one hun- 
dred and eleven counties are returned, and that the nine 
counties not returned would probably add several hundred 
thousand to this total amount of increase. 

Total taxable property for 1856, $161,304,025; for 1857, 
$183,504,205; for 1858, $193,636,818; for 1859, 
$224,353,266. 

Total ad valorem and State tax for 1856, $265,382; for 
1857, $301,126 54; for 1858, $269,755 95; for 1859, 
$309,726 60. 

Increase in taxable property from 1856 to 1857, 
$22,200,180; from 1857 to 1858, $10,132,613; from 1858 
to 1859, $30,716,448. 

Average value of land per acre in 1856, $1 41 ; in 1857, 
$1 47; in 1858, $1 65; in 1859, $1 88. 

The total area of Texas is estimated at one hundred and 
seventy-five millions acres of land, of which one hundred 
millions are public domain, held by the State. 

Population 212,592, including 58,161 slaves. Value of 
exports in 1858, $2,428,475; imports, $120,095. Popula- 
tion in 1860, 600,955, including 180,956 slaves. 

Passed act of secession from the Federal Union February 
1st, 1861. 

Virginia. — Area, 61,352 Square Miles. 

First settled in 1607. Adopted the Constitution of the 
United States in 1776. Population in 1850 was 1,141,661, 
including 472,528 slaves. Value of exports in 1858 was 
$7,262,765; imports, $1,079,067. Population in 1860, 
1,593,190, including 495,826 slaves. 

Tobacco is the principal product of the State. 



28 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

Passed an act of separation from the Federal Union April 
18th, 1861. 

Tennessee. — Area, 45,600 Square Miles. 

First settlement was made in 1757 The territory was ceded 
to the United States in 1790. Admitted into the Union as 
a State in 1796. Population in 1850 was 1,002,717, in- 
cluding 239,459 slaves ; population in 1860, 1,146,640, in- 
cluding 287,112 slaves. 

Passed ordinance of separation from the Federal Union 
May 2d, 1861. 

Arkansas. — Area, 52,198 Square Miles. 

This State was part of the Louisiana purchase. Was 
made into a separate Territory in 1819 ; joined the Federal 
Union in 1836. Value of annual products for 1858, 
$994,722. Population in 1850, 209,897, including 47,100 
slaves. Population in I860, 440,775, including 109,065 
slaves. 

The progress of this State has been astounding in the 
past few years, and she possesses so many resources, that 
her position ere long will be among the first States of the 
South. 

Productions. — The rich, black alluvion of the river yields 
Indian corn in great luxuriance. This product, with cotton, 
tobacco, rice, many varieties of grain, wool, hops, hemp, flax, 
and silk, are the staples. 

The forest trees include great quantities of the cotton 
wood, gum, ash, and cypress, in the bottom lands, and the 
usual vegetation of the North in the uplands. The sugar 
maple, yielding large supplies of sap, is found here. 

Minerals. — Coal, iron, zinc, lead, gypsum, manganese, 



AND REPOSITORY OP USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 29 

salt, and other mineral products exist here. Gold, too, it is 
said, has been found. "There is," says a writer, "manga- 
nese enough in Arkansas to supply the world ; in zinc, it 
exceeds every State except New Jersey, and has more gyp- 
sum than all the other States put together; while it is 
equally well supplied with marble and salt." 

Dissolved connection with the Federal Union May 
6th, 1861. 

North Carolina. — Area, 50,704 Square Miles. 

Was first settled by emigrants from Virginia, in 1660. The 
country was divided into two Territories, in 1720, (North 
and South Carolina.) North Carolina adopted the Federal 
Constitution in 1790. Population in 1850, 869,039, includ- 
ing 228,548 slaves. Value of exports in 1858, $16,955,057; 
imports, 12,071,519. Population in 1860, 1,008,342, in- 
cluding 328,377 slaves. 

North Carolina possesses one million and a half acres of 
swamp lands, which are at present uncultivated, and are 
owned by the State. Professor Emmons, State geologist, in 
his report now before us, does not hesitate to say that he 
regards these lands as two-fold more valuable than the up- 
land, and well adapted to the growth of cotton. Here is a 
great future source of wealth. 

Dissolved connection with the Federal Union May 
21st, 1861. 

Missouri. — Area, 67,380 Square Miles. 

Settled by the French, in 1764. Territorial Government 
was formed in 1804. Admitted into the Union as a State in 
1821. Population in 1850, 682,044, including 87,422 
slaves. Population in 1860, 1,310,209, including 115,619 
slaves. 



30 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

Passed an act of separation from the Federal Union Oc- 
tober 28th, 1861. 

Kentucky. — Area, 37,680 Square Miles. 

First white settlement was made in 1775. Made into a 
Territory in 1782. Admitted into the Union in 1796. 
Population in 1850 was 982,405, including 210,981 slaves. 
Population in 1860, 1,145,567, including 224,490 slaves. 

Maryland. — Area, 11,121 Square Miles. 

First settlement was made by Catholics, in 1634. Adopted 
the Federal Constitution in 1776. Population in 1850 was 
583,034, including 90,368 slaves. Value of exports in 
1855 was $10,395,984 ; imports, $7,788,949. Population in 
1860, 731,565, including 85,826 slaves. 

Delaware. — Area, 2,120 Square Miles. 

The smallest of the Southern States, was first settled in 
1630, by the Swedes and Fins. Adopted the United States 
Constitution in 1787 Population in 1850, 71,169 white, and 
2,290 slaves. Population in 1860, 112,363, including 1,805 

slaves. 

TERRITORIES. 

New Mexico. — Area, 200 ,000 ^Square Miles. 

"Was ceded, by treaty with Mexico, to the United States 
in 1848. Population in 1850 was 61,547 ; population in 
1860, 93,024. 

Arizona. — Area, 100,000 Square Miles. 

The Territory of Arizona is bounded west by the Rio 
Colorado"; south by Sonora and Chihuahua, on the boundary 
line between the United States and Mexico, and from the 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 



31 



Rio Grande, on the 32d parallel of latitude in Texas, to the 
104° of longitude ; east by a line on the 104° of longitude 
to the 34th parallel of latitude, thence north on the 34th 
parallel to the Colorado River. It has an area of about 
100,000 square miles. The population is from 8,000 to 
10,000. Nine-tenths are Mexicans, and they are chiefly in 
the valley [of the Rio Grande. There is an abundance of 
mineral wealth, but very little agricultural land. 

Population of the Confederate States, according to the 
census of 1860. 



States. 


White. 


Slaves. 


Total. 




1,097,373 
697,965 
308,186 
615,336 
81,865 
520,444 
407,551 
354,245 
381,710 
515.999 
859,528 

1,185,590 


495,826 
328,377 
407,185 
467,461 
93,809 
435,473 
497,607 
312,186 
109,065 
184,956 
287,112 
115,619 


1,593,100 


North Carolina.. 
South Carolina.. 


1,008,342 

715,371 

1,082,797 




145,694 




935,917 




887,158 
666,481 
440,775 




600,955 


Tennessee 


1,146,640 
1,301,209 








6,867,289 


3,644,676 


10,510,915 



Population of the Southern States and Territories, not yet 
in the Confederacy . 




32 



THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 



Population of the Territories. 

Territories. Population in"l.S50. Population in 1860. 

New Mexico 61,547 93,024 

Arizona 9,000 



Population of some of the Principal Cities in the South- 
ern States. 




THE ORIGIN OF SECESSION. 

At the late Pilgrim Landing Anniversary, held in the 
Astor House, New York, Mr. Seward declared in his speech, 
that the men of New England invented the greatest political 
discovery in the world — the confederation of Republican 
States ; and that the people of South Carolina invented the 
doctrine of secession. Mr. Seward, in his eager efforts to 
attach blame to South Carolina, falls into a great error con- 
cerning the origin of secession. The first disunion speech 
ever made in the United States House of Representatives 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 33 

was by Josiah Quincy, of Massachusetts, in regard to the 

Louisiana Enabling Act, January 14, 1811. He said : 

I am compelled to declare it as my deliberate opinion, that if this 
bill passes, the bonds of this Union are virtually dissolved ; that the 
States -which compose it are free from their moral obligations, and 
that, as it will be the right of all, so it will be the duty of some, to 
prepare definitely for a separation — amicably, if they can; violently, 
if they must. 

A Southern member of the Senate, Mr.. Poindexter, of 
Mississippi, considered this declaration of " the right of all, 
as it was the duty of some, to prepare for separation — peace- 
ably, if they could ; forcibly, if they must," as very nearly 
akin to treason, and called the New England inventor to order. 

The inventor of disunion repeated his assertion, committed 
it to writing, and left the matter to the Speaker, who deci- 
ded it out of order. Mr. Quincy appealed from the deci- 
sion of the Speaker, and was sustained by a vote of 56 to 63 
in his right, as the Eepresentativc of New England, to in- 
vent disunion. — See Abridgment of Debates of Congress, 
vol. iv., p. 237 

PAY OE VOLUNTEER OFFICERS AND PRIVATES. 
Pay, per month, of officers and privates, accepted into the 
Confederate States Army : 



Colonel $175 00 

Lieutenant-Colonel 170 00 

Major 150 00 

Captain 108 00 

First Lieutenant 90 00 



Second Lieutenant $80 00 

First Sergeants 21 00 

Other Sergeants 17 00 

Corporals and Artificers IS 00 

Privates 11 00 



They have a yearly allowance for clothing, also, and one 

ration per day. 

The volunteers are expected to furnish their own uniforms, 
and will be paid for the same in money by the Confederate 
States Government, when mustered into service. Each regi- 
ment has a Quartermaster, with the rank of Captain, and a 
Commissary, with equal rank, a Surgeon and Assistant 



Surgeon. 



34 



THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 



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AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 35 

CONFEDERATE STATES ARMY, AS NOW ORGAN- 
IZED. NOVEMBER, 1861. 

The army in Virginia has been reorganized by the War 
Department. The army of the Potomac is under the su- 
preme command of Gen. J E. Johnston. It embraces 
three grand divisions : the largest and most important, at 
Manassas, being commanded by Gen. P T. G. Beauregard, 
and those at Aquia Creek and Shenandoah Valley, by Briga- 
diers General T. H. Holmes, of North Carolina, and Thomas 
J. Jackson, of Stone Wall Bridge, respectively. General 
Beauregard's command is subdivided into four divisions, 
commanded respectively by General Gustavus W Smith, 
Major General Edmund Kirby Smith, Earl Van Dorn, and 
James Longstreet. Under these officers are the numerous 
brigades composing the army, each composed as nearly as 
possible of regiments belonging to the same State, and com- 
manded by their own Brigadiers General. The Department 
of the Northwest remains under command of Gen. Lee ; 
that of the Yorktown Peninsula, under Major General Ma- 
gruder; that of Norfolk, under Major General Huger; that 
of Eastern Virginia, South of the James river, under Briga- 
dier General Pemberton ; and that of Richmond, under 
Brigadier General Winder. The coast defenses of North 
Carolina are under command of Brigadier General Gatlin, 
assisted by Brigadiers General J. R. Anderson and D. II. 
Hill. Those of South Carolina are in charge of Brigadier 
General Ripley; those of Georgia, of Brigadier General 
Lawton; those of Alabama, of Brigadier General Withers; 
those of Louisiana, of Major General Lovell; and those of 
Texas, of Brigadier General Hebert. Until his death, Brig- 
adier General Grayson commanded in East Florida. The 
supreme command in Kentucky, is vested in General A. S. 
Johnston ; and in Tennessee, in Major General Polk. 



36 



THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 



AEMY WAGES. 

The following is a statement of the monthly pay of officers 
and privates in the service of the Confederate States : 



Rank. 



Colonels 

Lieutenant-Colonels 

Majors . 

Captains 

First Lieutenants , 

Second Lieutenants 

Orderly Sergeants 

Other Sergeants 

Corporals and Artificers, 

Musicians 

Privates 



Infantry. 



$180 00 

180 00 

150 00 

130 00 

90 90 

80 00 

20 00 

17 00 

13 00 

12 00 

11 00 



Cavalry. 



$210 00 

185 00 

162 00 

140 00 

100 00 

90 00 

20 00 

17 00 

13 00 

12 00 

11 00 



Artillery. 



$210 00 

185 00 

152 00 

130 00 

90 00 

80 00 

20 00 

17 00 

13 00 

12 00 

11 00 



The monthly pay of Generals of Divisions, or Brigades, is 
$301. Privates and non-commissioned officers receive one 
ration a day, and a yearly allowance for clothing. Commis- 
sioned officers are not allowed to draw rations. 



EEPRESENTATION AND ELECTORAL VOTE OF 
THE CONFEDERATE STATES, IN THE FIRST 
CONGRESS. 

The first Congress of the Confederate States, under the 
permanent Constitution, will be composed of twenty-two 
Senators and eighty-seven Representatives. 

The representation will be as follows, being in the ratio of 
one member for every 90,000 of population, on the Federal 
basis, counting three-fifths for slaves. 

We add, in a separate column, the Electoral vote of each 
State in the Confederacy : 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 37 

Representation. Votes. 

Virginia 16 18 

North Carolina 10 12 

South Carolina 6 8 

Georgia 10 12 

Florida 2 4 

Alabama 9 11 

Louisiana , 6 8 

Texas 6 8 

Arkansas 4 6 

Mississippi 7 9 

Tennessee 11 13 

87 109 



38 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 



CONSTITUTION 

OP THE 

CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA. 



WE,_the people of the Confederate States, each State acting in its 
sovereign and independent character, in order to form a permanent 
federal government, establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, 
and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity- 
invoking the favor and guidance of Almighty God — do ordain and 
establish this Constitution for the Confederate States of America. 

AETICLE I. 

SECTION I. 

All legislative powers herein delegated shall be vested in a Con- 
gress of the Confederate States, which shall consist of a Senate and 
House of Representatives. 

SECTION II. 

1. The House of Eepresentatives shall be composed of members 
chosen every second year, by the people of the several States ; and 
the electors in each State shall be citizens of the Confederate States, 
and have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most nume- 
rous branch of the State Legislature ; but no person of foreign birth, 
not a citizen of the Confederate States, shall be allowed to vote for 
any officer, civil or political, State or Federal. 

2. No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained 
the age of twenty-five years, and be a citizen of the Confederate 
States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that 
State in which he shall be chosen. 

3. Representatives and Direct Taxes shall be apportioned among 
the several States, which may be included within this Confederacy, 
according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined, by 
adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound 
to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, 
three-fifths of all slaves. The actual enumeration shall be made 
within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the 
Confederate States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 39 

in such manner as they shall, by law, direct. The number of Re- 
presentatives shall not exceed one for every fifty thousand, but each 
State shall have at least one Representative ; and until such enume- 
ration shall be made, the State of South Carolina shall be entitled 
to choose six — the State of Georgia, ten — the State of Alabama, 
nine — The State of Florida, two — the State of Mississippi, seven — 
the State of Louisiana, six — and the State of Texas, six. 

4. When vacancies happen in the representation from any State, 
the Executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill 
such vacancies. 

5. The House of Representatives shall choose their speaker and 
other officers ; and shall have the sole power of impeachment ; ex- 
cept that any judicial or other federal officers resident and acting 
solely within the limits of any State, may be impeached by a vote of 
two-thirds of both branches of the Legislature thereof. 

SECTION III. 

1. The Senate of the Confederate States shall be composed of two 
Senators from each State, chosen for six years by the Legislature 
thereof, at the regular session next immediately preceding the com- 
mencement of the term of service ; and each Senator shall have one 
vote. 

2. Immediately after they shall be assembled, in consequence of 
the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into 
three classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be 
vacated at the expiration of the second year; of the second class, 
at the expiration of the fourth year ; and of the third class, at the 
expiration of the sixth year ; so that one-third maybe chosen every 
second year; and if vacancies happen, by resignation, or otherwise, 
during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive 
thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of 
the Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies. 

3. No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained the 
age of thirty years, and be a citizen of the Confederate States ; and 
who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of the State for which 
he shall be chosen. 

4. The Vice-President of the Confederate States shall be President 
of the Senate, but shall have no vote, unless they shall be equally di- 
vided. 

5. The Senate shall choose their other officers; and also a Presi- 
dent pro tempore in the absence of the Vice-President, or when he 
shall exercise the office of President of the Confederate States. 

6. The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. 
AVhen sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. 
When the President of the Confederate States is tried, the Chief Jus- 
tice shall preside ; and no person shall be convicted without the con- 
currence of two-thirds of the members present. 

7. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further 



40 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy 
any office of honor or profit, under the Confederate States ; but the 
party convicted shall, nevertheless, be liable and subject to indict- 
ment, trial, judgment, and punishment, according to law. 

SECTION IV. 

1. The time, place, and manner of holding elections for Senators 
and Representatives shall be prescribed in each State by the Legis- 
lature thereof, subject to the provisions of this Constitution; but the 
Congress may, at any time, by law, make or alter such regulations, 
except as to the times and places of choosing Senators. 

2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year ; and 
such meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they 
shall, by law, appoint a different day. 

section v. 

1. Each House shall be the judge of the elections, returns, and 
qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall con- 
stitute a quorum to do business ; but a smaller number may adjourn 
from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of 
absent members, in such manner and under such penalties as each 
House may provide. 

2. Bach House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish 
its members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of 
two-thirds of the whole number, expel a member. 

3. Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from 
time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may, in their 
judgment, require secrecy ; and the yeas and nays of the members 
of either House, on any question, shall, at the desire of one-fifth of 
those present, be entered on the journal. 

4. Neither House, during the session of Congress, shall, without 
the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to 
any other place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting. 

SECTION VI. 

1. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation 
for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the 
treasury of the Confederate States. They shall, in all cases, except 
treason, and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during 
their attendance at the session of their respective Houses, and in 
going to and returning from the same ; and for any speech or debate 
in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other place. 

2. No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which 
he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority 
of the Confederate States, which shall have been created, or the 
emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time ; 
and no person holding any office under the Confederate States shall 



AND REPOSITORY OP USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 41 

be a member of either House during his continuance in office. But 
Congress may, by law, grant, to the principal officer in each of the 
Executive Departments a seat upon the floor of either House, with 
the privilege of discussing any measures appertaining to his depart- 
ment. 

SECTION VII. 

1. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Re- 
presentatives ; but the Senate may propose or concur with amend- 
ments, as on other bills. 

2. Every bill which shall have passed both Houses, shall, before it 
becomes a law, be presented to the President of the Confederate 
States ; if he approve, he shall sign it ; but if not, he shall return 
it, with his objections, to the House in which it shall have origina- 
ted, who shall enter the objections at large on their journals, and 
proceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsideration, two-thirds 
of that House shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together 
with the objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be 
reconsidered ; and if approved by two-thirds of that House, it shall 
become a law. But in all such cases, the votes of both Houses shall 
be determined by yeas and nays, and the persons voting for or against 
the bill shall be entered on the journal of each House respectively. 
If any bill shall not be returned by the President within ten days 
(Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the 
same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the 
Congress, by their adjournment, prevent its return ; in which case 
it shall not be a law. The President may approve any appropriation 
and disapprove any other appropriation in the same bill. In such 
case he shall, in signing the bill, designate the appropriations disap- 
proved ; and shall return a copy of such appropriations, with his ob- 
jections, to the House in which the bill shall have originated, and the 
same proceedings shall then be had as in case of other bills disap- 
proved by the President. 

3. Every order, resolution, ' or vote, to which the concurrence of 
both Houses may be necessary (except on a question of adjourn- 
ment) shall be presented to the President of the Confederate States ; 
and before the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him ; or, 
being disapproved by him, may be repassed by two-thirds of both 
Houses, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in case of 
a bill. 

SECTION VIII. 

The Congress shall have power — 

1. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises, for reve- 
nue necessary to pay the debts, provide for the common defence, and 
carry on the Government of the Confederate States ; hut no bounties 
shall be granted from the treasury ; nor shall any duties or taxes on 
importations from foreign nations be laid to promote or foster any 
branch of industry ; and all duties, imposts, and excises shall be 
uniform throughout the Confederate States : 



42 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

2. To borrow money on the credit of the Confederate States : 

3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the sev- 
eral States, and with the Indian tribes ; but neither this, nor any other 
clause contained in the Constitution, shall ever be construed to del- 
egate the power to Congress to appropriate money for any internal 
improvement intended to facilitate commerce, except for the purpose 
of furnishing lights, beacons, and buoys, and other aids to naviga- 
tion upon the coasts, and the improvement of harbors, and the re- 
moving of obstructions in river navigation, in all which cases, such 
duties shall be laid on the navigation facilitated thereby, as may be 
necessary to pay the costs and expenses thereof: 

4. To establish uniform laws of naturalization, and uniform laws 
on the subject of bankruptcies, throughout the Confederate States ; 
but no law of Congress shall discharge any debt contracted before 
the passage of the same : 

5. To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, 
and fix the standard of weights and measures : 

6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities 
and current coin of the Confederate States : 

7. To establish post offices and post routes ; but the expenses of 
the Postoffice Department, after the first day of March, in the year 
of our Lord eighteen hundred and sixty-three, shall be paid out of 
its own revenues : 

8. To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing 
for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their 
respective writings and discoveries : 

9. To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court : 

10. To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the 
high seas, and offences against the law of nations : 

11. To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and 
make rules concerning captures on land and water : 

12. To raise and support armies ; but no appropriation of money 
to that use shall be for a longer term than two years : 

13. To provide and maintain a navy : 

14. To make rules for government and the regulation of the land 
and naval forces : 

15. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of 
the Confederate States, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions : 

16. To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the mili- 
tia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the 
service of the Confederate States ; reserving to the States, respect- 
ively, the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training 
the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress : 

17. To exercise exclusive legislation, in all cases whatsoever, over 
such district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of 
one or more States, and the acceptance of Congress, become the 
seat of the Government of the Confederate States ; and to exercise 
like authority over all the places purchased by the consent of the 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 43 

legislature of the State in which the same shall be, for the erection 
of forts, magazines, arsenals, dockyards, and other needful build- 
ings ; and 

18. To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for car- 
rying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers 
vested by this Constitution in the Government of the Confederate 
States, or in any department or officer thereof. 

SECTION IX. 

1. The importation of negroes of the African race, from any for- 
eign country, other than the slaveholding States or Territories of the 
United States of America, is hereby forbidden ; and Congress is re- 
quired to pass such laws as shall effectually prevent the same : 

2. Congress shall also have power to prohibit the introduction of 
slaves from any State not a member of, or Territory not belonging 
to, this Confederacy. 

3. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be sus- 
pended, unless when, in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public 
safety may require it. 

4. No bill of attainder, or ex post facto law, or law denying or im- 
pairing the right of property in negro slaves, shall be passed. 

5. No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in pro- 
portion to the census or enumeration hereinbefore directed to be 
taken. 

6. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any State, 
except by a vote of two-thirds of both Houses. 

7. No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or 
revenue to the ports of one State over those of another. 

8. No money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in conse- 
quence of appropriations made by law ; and a regular statement 
and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money 
shall be published from time to time. 

9. Congress shall appropriate no money from the Treasury, ex- 
cept by a vote of two-thirds of both Houses, taken by yea* and nays, 
unless it be asked and estimated for by some one of the heads of the 
Department, and submitted to Congress by the President ; or for 
the purpose of paying its own expenses and contingencies ; or for 
the payment of claims against the Confederate States, the justice of 
which shall have been judicially declared by a tribunal^ for the in- 
vestigation of claims against the Government, which it is hereby 
made the duty of Congress to establish. 

10. All bills appropriating money shall specify in Federal cur- 
rency the exact amount of each appropriation, and the purposes for 
which it is made ; and Congress shall grant no extra compensation 
to any public contractor, officer, agent, or servant, after such con- 
tract shall have been made or such service rendered. 

11. No title of nobility shall be granted by the Confederate States; 
and no person holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, 



44 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolu- 
ments, office, or titles of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, 
or foreign State. 

12. Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of 
religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof ; or abridging the 
freedom of speech, or of the press ; or the right of the people peacea- 
bly to assemble and petition the Government for a redress of 
grievances. 

13. A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a 
free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not 
be infringed. 

14. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house 
without the consent of the owner ; nor in time of war, but in a 
manner to be prescribed by law. 

15. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, 
papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall 
not be violated ; and no warrant shall issue but upon probable cause, 
supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the 
place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. 

16. No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise 
infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand 
jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the 
militia, when in actual service, in time of war or public danger; nor 
shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in 
jeopardy of life or limb ; nor be compelled, in any criminal case, to 
be a witness against himself; nor be deprived of life, liberty, or 
property, without due process of law ; nor shall private property be 
taken for public use, without just compensation. 

17. In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall enjoy the right 
to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and 
district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district 
shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of 
the nature and cause of the accusation ; to be confronted with the 
witnesses against him ; to have compulsory process for obtaining 
witnesses in his favor ; and to have the assistance of counsel for his 
defence. 

18. In suits at common law where the value in controversy shall 
exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved ; 
and no fact so tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any 
court of the Confederacy, than according to the rules of the common 
law. 

19. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines be im- 
posed, nor cruel and unjust punishments be inflicted. 

20. Every law, or resolution having the force of law, shall relate 
to but one subject, and that shall be expressed in the title. 

section x. 
1. No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation; 



AND REPOSITORY OP USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 45 

grant letters of marque and reprisal ; coin money ; make anything 
but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts ; pass any bill 
of attainder, or ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of 
contracts ; or grant any title of nobility. 

2. No State shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any 
imposts, or duties on imposts or exports, except what may be abso- 
lutely necessary for executing its inspection laws ; and the net pro- 
duce of all duties and imposts, laid by any State on imports or 
exports, shall be for the use of the treasury of the Confederate 
States ; and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control 
of Congress. 

3. No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty 
of tonnage, except on sea-going vessels, for the improvement of its 
rivers and harbors navigated by the said vessels ; but such duties 
shall not conflict with any treaties of the Confederate States with 
foreign nations ; and any surplus or revenue, thus derived, shall, 
after making such improvements, be paid into the common treasury; 
nor shall any State keep troops or ships of war in time of peace, 
enter into any agreement or compact with another State, or with a 
foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such 
imminent danger as will not admit of delay. But when any river 
divides or flows through two or more States, they may enter into 
compacts with each other to improve the navigation thereof. 

ARTICLE II. 

SECTION I. 

1. The executive power shall be vested in a President of the Con- 
federate States of America. He and the Vice-President shall hold 
their offices for the term of six years ; but the President shall not be 
re-eligible. The President and Vice-President shall be elected as 
follows : 

2. Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the Legislature 
thereof may direct, a number of electors equal to the whole number 
of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled 
in the Congress; but no Senator or Representative, or person holding 
an office of trust or profit under the Confederate States, shall be ap- 
pointed an elector. 

3. The electors shall meet in their respective States and vote by 
ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall 
not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves ; they shall 
name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in dis- 
tinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall 
make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all 
persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for 
each, which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit, sealed, to 
the government of the Confederate States, directed to the President 
of the Senate ; the President of the Senate shall, in the presence of 



46 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, 
and the vote shall then be counted ; the person having the greatest 
number of votes for President shall be the President, if such number 
be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed ; and if no 
person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest 
numbers, not exceeding three, on the list of those voted for as Pres- 
ident, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by 
ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the vote shall 
be taken by States, the representation from each State having one 
vote ; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or mem- 
bers from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States 
shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representa- 
tives shall not choose a President, whenever the right of choice shall 
devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, 
then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in case of the 
death or other Constitutional disability of the President. 

4. The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-Presi- 
dent shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of 
the whole number of electors appointed ; and if no person have a 
majority, then, from the two highest numbers on the list of the Sen- 
ate shall choose the Vice-President ; a quorum for the purpose shall 
consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a major- 
ity of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. 

5. No person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President, 
shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the Confederate 
States. 

6. The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors, 
and the day on which they shall give their votes ; which day shall 
be the same throughout the Confederate States. 

7. No person except a natural born citizen of the Confederate 
States, or a citizen thereof, at the time of the adoption of the Con- 
stitution, or a citizen thereof born in the United States prior to the 
20th of December, 1860, shall be eligible to the office of President; 
neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have 
attained the age of thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a resi- 
dent within the limits of the Confederate States, as they may exist 
at the time of his election. 

8. In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his 
death, resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of 
the said office, the same shall devolve on the Vice-President ; and 
the Congress may, by law, provide for the case of removal, death, 
resignation, or inability, both of the President and Vice-President, 
declaring what officer shall then act as President, and such officer 
shall act accordingly until the disability be removed or a President 
shall be elected. 

9. The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services a 
compensation which shall neither be increased nor diminished during 
the period for which he shall have been elected ; and he shall not 



AND REPOSITORY OP USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 47 

receive within that period any other emolument from the Confede- 
rate States, or any of them. 

10. Before he enters on the execution of his office, he shall tako 
the following oath or affirmation : 

"I do solemnly swear — or affirm — that I will faithfully execute 
the office of President of the Confederate States, and will, to the best 
of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution thereof." 

SECTION II. 

1. The President shall be Commander-in-Chief of the army and 
navy of the Confederate States, and of the militia of the several 
States, when called into the actual service of the Confederate States ; 
he may require the opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in 
each of the Executive Departments, upon any subject relating to the 
duties of their respective offices : and he shall have power to grant 
reprieves and pardons for offences against the Confederate States, 
except in cases of impeachment. 

2. He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of 
the Senate, to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the Senators 
present concur ; and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice 
and consent of the Senate, shall appoint ambassadors, other public 
ministers and consuls, Judges of the Supreme Court, and all other 
officers of the Confederate States, whose appointments are not herein 
otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by law ; but 
the Congress may, by law, vest the appointment of such inferior offi- 
cers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of 
Law, or in the heads of Departments. 

3. The principal in each of the Executive Departments, and all 
persons connected with the diplomatic service, may be removed from 
office at the pleasure of the President. All other civil officers of the 
Executive Department, may be removed at any time by the Presi- 
dent, or other appointing power, when their services are unneces- 
sary, or for dishonesty, incapacity, inefficiency, misconduct, or neglect 
of duty ; and when so removed, the removal shall be reported to the 
Senate, together with the reasons therefor. 

4. The President shall have power to fill all vacancies that may 
happen during the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions- 
which shall expire at the end of their next session ; but no person 
rejected by the Senate shall be re-appointed to the same office during 
their ensuing recess. 

SECTION III. 

1. The President shall, from time to time, give to the Congress 
information of the state of the Confederacy, and recommend to their 
consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expe- 
dient; he may, on extraordinary occasions, convene both Ilouses.or 
either of them; and in case of disagreement between them, with 
respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such 



48 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

time as he shall think proper; he shall receive ambassadors and 
other public ministers; he shall take care that the laws be faithfully 
executed, and shall commission all the officers of the Confederate 
States. 

SECTION IV. 

1. The President, Vice-President, and all civil officers of the Con- 
federate States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, 
and conviction of treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misde- 
meanors. 

ARTICLE III. 

SECTION I. 

1. The judicial power of the Confederate States shall be vested in 
one Superior Court, and in such Inferior Courts as the Congress may 
from time to time order and establish. The judges, both of the Su- 
perior and Inferior Courts, shall hold their offices during good be- 
havior, and shall, at stated times, receive for their services a com- 
pensation, which shall not be diminished during their continuance in 
office. 

SECTION II. 

1. The judicial power shall extend to all cases arising under this 
Constitution, the laws of the Confederate States, and treaties made, 
or which shall be made, under their authority ; to all cases 
affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls ; to all 
cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction ; to controversies to 
which the Confederate States shall be a party ; to controversies be- 
tween two or more States ; between a State and citizens of another 
State, where the State is plaintiff; between citizens claiming lands 
under grants from different States ; and between the State, or the 
citizens thereof, and foreign States, citizens, or subjects; but no 
State shall be sued by a citizen or subject of any foreign State. 

2. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and 
consuls, and those in which a State shall be a party, the Supreme 
Court shall have original jurisdiction. In all other cases before- 
mentioned, the Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both 
as to law and facts, with such exceptions, and under such regula- 
tions, as the Congress shall make. 

3. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall 
be by jury, and such trial shall be held in the State where the said 
crime shall have been committed ; but when not committed within 
any State, the trial shall be at such place or places as the Congress 
may by law have directed. 

SECTION III. 

1. Treason against the Confederate States shall consist only in 
levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving 
them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason un- 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 49 

less on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on 
confession in open court. 

2. The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of 
treason, but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, 
or forfeiture, except during the life of the person attainted, 

ARTICLE IV. 

SECTION I. 

1. Full faith and credit shall be given in each State to the public 
acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other State. And 
the Congress may, by general laws, prescribe the manner in which 
such acts, records, and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect 
thereof. 

SECTION II. 

1. The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all the privileges 
and immunities of citizens in the several States, and shall have the 
right of transit and sojourn in any State of the Confederacy, with 
their slaves and other property ; and the right of property in said 
slaves shall not be thereby impaired. 

2. A person charged in any State with treason, felony, or other 
crime against the laws of such State, shall, on the demand of the 
Executive authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered 
up to be removed to the State having jurisdiction of the crime. 

3. No slave, or other person held to service or labor, in any State 
or Territory of the Confederate States, under the laws thereof, 
escaping or lawfully carried into another, shall, in consequence of 
any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or 
labor ; but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such 
slave belongs, or to whom such labor or service may be due. 

SECTION III. 

1. Other States may be admitted into this Confederacy by a vote 
of two-thirds of the whole House of Representatives, and two-thirds 
of the Senate, the Senate voting by States ; but no new State shall 
be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other State ; nor 
any State be formed by the junction of two or more States, or parts 
of States, without the consent of the Legislatures of the States con- 
cerned, as well as of the Congress. 

2. The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all need- 
ful rules and regulations concerning the property of the Confederate 
States, including the lands thereof. 

3. The Confederate States may acquire new territory ; and ( \mgress 
shall have power to legislate and provide governments for the inhab- 
itants of all territory belonging to the Confederate States, lying 
without the limits of the several States ; and may permit them, at 



50 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

such times, and in such manner, as it may by law provide, to form 
States to be admitted into the Confederacy. In all such territory, 
the institution of negro slavery, as it now exists in the Confederate 
States, shall be recognized and protected by Congress, and by the 
Territorial Government ; and the inhabitants of the several Confed- 
erate States and Territories shall have the right to take to such ter- 
ritory any slaves, lawfully held by them in any of the States or Ter- 
ritories of the Confederate States. 

4. The Confederate States shall guarantee to every State that 
is or hereafter may become a member of this Confederacy, a republican 
form of government, and shall protect each of them against inva- 
sion ; and on application of the Legislature (or of the Executive, 
when the Legislature is in session,) against domestic violence. 

ARTICLE V 

SECTION I. 

1. Upon the demand of any three States, legally assembled in 
their several conventions, the Congress shall summon a convention 
of all the States, to take into consideration such amendments to the 
Constitution as the said States all concur in suggesting at the time 
when the said demand is made ; and should any of the proposed 
amendments to the Constitution be agreed on by the said conven- 
tion — voting by States — and the same be ratified by the Legislatures 
of two-thirds of the several States, or by conventions in two-thirds 
thereof — as the one or the other mode of ratification may be pro- 
posed by the general convention — they shall thenceforward form a 
part of this Constitution. But no State shall, without its consent, be 
deprived of its equal representation in the Senate. 

ARTICLE VI. 

1. The Government established by this Constitution is the succes- 
sor of the Provisional Government of the Confederate States of 
America, and all the laws passed by the latter shall continue in force 
until the same shall be repealed or modified; and all the officers ap- 
pointed by the same shall remain in office until their successors are 
appointed and qualified, or the offices abolished. 

2. All debts contracted, and engagements entered into, before the 
adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the Confeder- 
ate States under this Constitution as under the Provisional Govern- 
ment. 

3. This Constitution, and the laws of the Confederate States, made 
in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made, or which shall be made, 
under the authority of the Confederate States, shall be the supreme 
law of the land ; and the judges in every State shall be bound there- 
by, anything in the Constitution or laws of any State to the contrary 
notwithstanding. 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 51 

4. The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the 
members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and ju- 
dicial officers, both of the Confederate States and of the several 
States, shall be bound by oath or affirmation to support this Consti- 
tution ; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification 
to any office of public trust under the Confederate States. 

5. The enumeration, in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall 
not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people 
of the several States. 

6. The powers not delegated to the Confederate States by the Con- 
stitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the 
States, respectively, or to the people thereof. 

ARTICLE VII. 

1. The ratification of the conventions of five States shall be suffi- 
cient for the establishment of this Constitution between the States so 
ratifying the same. 

2. When five States shall have ratified this Constitution in the 
manner before specified, the Congress under the Provisional Consti- 
tution shall prescribe the time for holding the election of President 
and Vice-President, and for the meeting of the Electoral College, and 
for counting the votes, and inaugurating the President. They shall, 
also, prescribe the time for holding the first election of members of 
Congress under this Constitution, and the time for assembling the 
same. Until the assembling of such Congress, the Congress^ under 
the Provisional Constitution shall continue to exercise the legislative 
powers granted them; not extending beyond the time limited b,y 
the Constitution of the Provisional Government. 

Adopted, unanimously, March 11, 1861. 



52 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 



MESSAGE OF PRESIDENT DAVIS 

DELIVERED AT MONTGOMERY, APRIL 29, 1861. 



Montgomery, April 30. — The Congress of the Confederate 
States of America assembled at noon yesterday, Hon. Howell 
Cobb, of Georgia, President, in the Chair. 

After the usual preliminaries of organization had been gone 
through with, the following Message of his Excellency, Jefferson 
Davis, President of the Confederate States of America, was re- 
ceived and read : 

Gentlemen of Congress : — It is my pleasing duty to announce 
to you that the Constitution framed for the establishment of a 
permanent Government of the Confederate States of America, has 
been ratified by the several conventions of each of those States 
which were referred to inaugurate the said Government in its full 
proportions and upon its own substantial basis of the popular 
will. 

It only remains that an election should be held for the designa- 
tion of the officers to administer it. 

There is every reason to believe that at no distant day other 
States, identified in political principles and community of inter- 
ests with those which you represent, will join this Confederacy, 
giving to its typical constellation increased splendor, to its gov- 
ernment of free, equal, and sovereign States, a wider sphere of 
usefulness, and to the friends of constitutional liberty a greater 
security for its harmonious and perpetual existence. 

It was not, however, for the purpose of making this announce- 
ment that I have deemed it my duty to convoke you at an earlier 
day than that fixed by yourselves for your meeting. 

The declaration of war made against this Confederacy, by 
Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, in his procla- 
mation, issued on the 15th day of the present month, renders it 
necessary, in my judgment, that you should convene at the ear- 
liest practicable moment to devise the measures necessary for the 
defence of the country. 



AND REPOSITORY OP USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 53 

The occasion is, indeed, an extraordinary one. It justifies mo 
n giving a brief review of the relations heretofore exist n I be- 
tween us and the States which now unite in warfare a, ust us 
and a succinct statement of the events which have resulted, £ 
end that mankind may pass intelligent and impartial judgment 
on its motives and objects. J •-<"'' 

During the war waged against Great Britain by her colonies 
^Z C01 ^Tll a , comm ? n ^nger impelled them to a clo i 
alhance and to the formation of a Confederation, by the term, 
of which the colonies styling themselves States, entered severally 
£w ft Iea S ue .° f friendship with each other for their common 
defence the security of their liberties, and their mutual and gen- 
eral welfare binding themselves to assist each other against all 
force offered to or attacks made upon them, or any of them on 
whatever VehgWn ' SOTerei S n ty. trade, or any other pretence 

In order to guard against any misconstruction of their com- 
pact the several States made an explicit declaration in a distinct 
article— that each State retain its sovereignty, freedom, and inde- 
pendence, and every power of jurisdiction and right which is not 
by this said Confederation expressly delegated to the United 
btatcs m Congress assembled under this contract of alliance 

Ihe war of the Revolution was successfully wao-ed and re- 
sulted in the treaty of peace with Great Britain in*l783 by the 
termsof which the several States were each by name rec'oo-nized 
to be independent. ° 

The articles of confederation contained a clause whereby all 
alterations were prohibited, unless confirmed by the Le-ishtures 
of every State, after being agreed to by the Congress, and in obe- 
dience to this provision, under the resolution of Congress of the 
21st of February, 1787, the several States appointed delegates 
for the purpose of revising the articles of confederation, and re- 
porting to Congress and the several Legislatures such alterations 
and provisions therein as shall, when agreed to in Congress and 
confirmed by the States, render the Federal Constitution adequate 
to the exigencies of the Government, and the preservation of the 
Union. 

It was by the delegates chosen by the several States under the 
resolution just quoted, that the Constitution of the United States 
was formed in 1787, and submitted to the several States for rati- 
fication, as shown by the seventh article, which is in these words: 
".The ratification of the conventions of nine States shall be suffi- 
cient for the establishment of this Constitution between the States 
so ratifying the same." 

I have italicized certain words in the resolutions just made for 
the purpose of attracting attention to the singular and marked 



54 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

caution with which the States endeavored, in every possible form, 
to exclude the idea that the separate and independent sovereignty 
of each State was merged into one common government or nation; 
and the earnest desire they evinced to impress on the Constitu- 
tion its true character — that of a compact between independent 
States — the Constitution of 1787, however, admitting the clause 
already recited from the articles of confederation, which pro- 
vided in explicit terms that each State reclaimed its sovereignty 
and independence. 

Some alarm was felt in the States, when invited to ratify the 
Constitution, lest this omission should be construed into an aban- 
donment of their cherished principles, and they refused to be 
satisfied until amendments were added to the Constitution, plac- 
ing beyond any pretence of doubt the reservation by the States 
of their sovereign rights and powers not expressly delegated to 
the United States by the Constitution. 

Strange indeed must it appear to the impartial observer, but it 
is none the less true, that all these carefully worded clauses proved 
unavailing to prevent the rise and growth in the Northern States 
of a political school which has j>ersistentiy claimed that the Gov- 
ernment created by the States, to secure the blessings of liberty 
and independence against foreign aggression, has been gradually 
perverted into a machine for their control in their domestic 
aifairs. 

The creature has been exalted above its Creator — the principals 
have been made subordinate to the agent appointed by themselves. 

The people of the Southern States, whose almost exclusive 
occupation was agriculture, early perceived a tendency in the 
Northern States to render a common Government subservient to 
their own purposes by imposing burthens on commerce as a pro- 
tection to their manufacturing and shipping interests. 

Long and angry controversies grew out of these attempts, often 
successful, to benefit one section of the country at the expense of 
the other, and the clanger of disruption arising from this cause, 
was enhanced by the fact that the Northern population was in- 
creasing by immigration and other causes faster than the popula- 
tion of the South. 

By degrees, as the Northern States gained preponderance in 
the National Congress, self-interest taught their people to yield 
ready assent to any plausible advocacy of their right as a ma- 
jority to govern the minority. Without control they learn to 
listen with impatience to the suggestion of any constitutional 
impediment to the exercise of their will, and so utterly have the 
principles of the Constitution been corrupted in the Northern 
mind that, in the inaugural address of President Lincoln in 
March last, he asserts as a maxim, which he deems to be undeni- 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 55 

able, that the theory of the Constitution requires, in all oases, 
that the majority shall govern. And in another memorable in- 
stance the same Chief Magistrate did not hesitate to liken the 
relations between States and the United States to those which 
exist between the county and the State in which it is situated, 
and by which it was created. 

This is the lamentable and fundamental error in which rests 
the policy that has culminated in his declaration of war against 
these Confederate States — in addition to the long continued and 
deep-seated resentment felt by the Southern States at the per- 
sistent abuse of the powers they had delegated to the Congress, 
for the purpose of enriching the manufacturing and shipping 
classes of the North at the expense of the South. 

There has existed for nearly half a century another subject of 
discord, involving interests of such transcendent magnitude as 
at all times to create the apprehension in the minds of many 
devoted lovers of the Union that its permanence was impossible. 

When the several States delegated certain powers to the United 
States Congress, a large portion of the laboring population were 
imported into the colonies by the mother country. In twelve out 
of the fifteen States, negro slavery existed, and the right of 
property existing in slaves was protected by law: this property 
was recognized by the Constitution, and provision was made 
against its loss by the escape of the slave. 

The increase in the number of slaves by foreign importation 
from Africa, was also secured by a clause forbidding Congress to 
prohibit the slave trade anterior to a certain date, and in no 
clause can there be found any delegation of power to the ( Vm- 
gress to authorize it in any manner to legislate to the prejudice, 
detriment, or discouragement of the owners of that species of 
property, or excluding it from the protection of the Covernment. 

The climate and soil of the Northern States soon proved un- 
propitious to the continuance of slave labor, while the rexerse 
being the case at the South made unrestricted free intercourse 
between the two sections unfriendly. 

The Northern States consulted their own interests by selling 
their slaves to the South, and prohibiting slavery between their 
limits. The South were willing purchasers of property suitable 
to their wants, and paid the price of the acquisition without har- 
boring a suspicion that their quiet possession was to be disturbed 
by those who were not only in want of Constitutional authority, 
but by good faith as vendors, from disquieting a title emanating 
from themselves. 

As soon, however, as the Northern States that prohibitedAfri- 
can slavery within their limits had reached a number sufficient 
to give their representation a controlling vote in the Cong'-"" " 



n'o; 



56 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

persistent and organized system of hostile measures against the 
rights of the owners of slaves in the Southern States was inau- 
gurated and gradually extended. A series of measures was 
devised and prosecuted for the purpose of rendering insecure the 
tenure of property in slaves. 

Fanatical organizations, supplied with money by voluntary 
subscriptions, were assiduously engaged in exciting amongst the 
slaves a spirit of discontent and revolt. Means were furnished 
for their escape from their owners, and agents secretly employed 
to entice them to abscond. 

The constitutional provision for their rendition to their owners 
was first evaded, then openly denounced as a violation of con- 
scientious obligation and religious duty. Men were taught that 
it was a merit to elude, disobey, and violently oppose the execu- 
tion of the laws enacted to secure the performance of the promise 
contained in the constitutional compact. Often owners of slaves 
were mobbed and even murdered in open day, solely for applying 
to a magistrate for the arrest of a fugitive slave. 

The dogmas of the voluntary organization soon obtained con- 
trol of the Legislatures of many of the Northern States, and 
laws were passed for the punishment, by ruinous fines and long^ 
continued imprisonment in jails and penitentiaries, of citizens of 
the Southern States who should dare ask aid of the officers of the 
law for the recovery of their property. Emboldened by success, 
on the theatre of agitation and aggression, against the clearly 
expressed constitutional rights ,of the Congress, Senators and 
.Representatives were sent to the common councils of the nation, 
whose chief title to this distinction consisted in the display of 
ultra fanaticism, and whose business was not to promote the 
general welfare, or ensure domestic tranquillity, but to awaken 
the bitterest hatred against the citizens of sister States by violent 
denunciation of their institutions. 

The transaction of public affairs was impeded by the repeated 
efforts to usurp powers not delegated by the Constitution, for the 
purpose of impairing the security of the property in .slaves, and 
reducing those States which held slaves to a condition of in- 
feriority. 

Finally, a great party has organized for the purpose of obtain- 
ing the administration of the Government, with the avowed object 
of using its power for the total exclusion of the slave States from 
all participation in the benefits of the public domain, acquired 
by all the States in common, whether by conquest or purchase, 
surrounding them entirely by States in which slavery should be 
prohibited, thus rendering the property in slaves so insecure as 
to be comparatively worthless, and thereby annihilating in effect 
property worth thousands of millions of dollars. 



AND REPOSITORY OP USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 57 

This party, thus organized, succeeded in the month of Novem- 
ber last in the election of its candidate for the Presidency of the 
United States. 

In the meantime, under the mild and genial climate of the 
Southern States, and the increasing care for the -well-being and 
comfort of the laboring classes, dictated alike by interest and 
humanity, the African slaves had augmented in number from 
about six hundred thousand, at the date of the adoption of the 
constitutional compact, to upwards of four millions. 

In a moral and social condition they had been elevated from 
brutal savages into docile, intelligent, and civilised agricultural 
laborers, and supplied not only with bodily comforts, but with 
careful religious instructions under the supervision of a superior 
race. Their labor had been so directed as not only to allow a 
gradual and marked amelioration of their own condition, but to 
convert hundreds of thousands of square miles of the wilderness 
into cultivated lands, covered with a prosperous people. Towns 
and cities had sprung into existence, and it rapidly increased in 
wealth and population under the social system of the South. 

The white population of the Southern slaveholding States had 
augmented from about 1,250,000 at the date of the adoption of 
the Constitution, to more than 8,500,000 in 18G0, and the produc- 
tions of the South in cotton, rice, sugar, and tobacco, for the full 
development and continuance of which the labor of African 
slaves was and is indispensable, had swollen to the amount which 
formed nearly three-fourths of the export of the whole United 
States, and had become absolutely necessary to the wants of 
civilized man. 

With interests of such overwhelming magnitude imperiled, the 
people of the Southern States were driven by the conduct of the 
North to the adoption of some course of action to avoid the clan- 
gers which were openly menaced. With this view the Legisla- 
tures of the several States invited the people to select delegates 
to conventions, to be held for the purpose of determining for 
themselves what measures were best to be adopted to meet so 
alarming a crisis in their history. 

Here it may be proper to observe that, from a period as early 
as 1798, there had existed in all of the States of the Union a 
party almost uninterruptedly in the majority, based upon the 
creed that each State was, in the last resort, the solo judge as 
well of its wrongs as the mode and measures of redress.^ Indeed, 
it is obvious that under the law of nations this principle is an 
axiom as applied to the relations of independent sovereign States, 
such as those which had united themselves under the constitu- 
tional compact. 

The Democratic party of the United States repeated in its sue- 



58 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

cessful canvass in 1836, the deductions made in numerous pre- 
vious political contests, that it would faithfully abide by, and 
uphold the principles laid down in the Kentucky and Virginia 
Legislatures in 1799, and that it adopts those principles as con- 
stituting one of the main foundations of its political creed. 

The principles thus emphatically announced, embrace that to 
■which I have already adverted — the right of each State to judge 
of and redress the wrongs of which it complains. Their princi- 
ples were maintained by overwhelming majorities of the people 
of all the States of the Union at different elections, especially in 
the election of Mr. Jefferson in 1805, Mr. Madison in 1809, and 
Mr. Pierce in 1852. In the exercise of a right so ancient, so 
well established, and so necessary for self-preservation, the people 
of the Confederate States, in their conventions, determined that 
the wrongs which they had suffered, and the evils with which they 
were menaced, required that they should revoke the delegation of 
powers to the Federal Government which they had ratified in 
their several conventions. They consequently passed ordinances 
resuming all their rights as sovereign and independent States, 
and dissolved their connection with the other States of the Union. 
Having done this, they proceeded to form a new compact amongst 
themselves by new articles of confederation, which have been also 
ratified by conventions of the several States, with an approach to 
unanimity far exceeding that of the conventions which adopted 
the constitutions of 1787. They have organized their new Gov- 
ernment in all its departments. The functions of the executive, 
legislative, and judicial magistrates, are performed in accordance 
with the will of the people, as displayed not merely in a cheerful 
acquiescence, but in the enthusiastic support of the Government 
thus established by themselves, and but for the interference of 
the Government of the United States, this legitimate exercise of 
a people to self-government has been manifested in every possible 
form. 

Scarce had you assembled in February last, when, prior even 
to the inauguration of the Chief Magistrate you had elected, 
you passed a resolution expressive of your desire for the appoint- 
ment of commissioners, and for the settlement of all questions of 
disagreement between the two Governments, upon principles of 
right, justice, equity, and good faith. 

It was my pleasure, as well as my duty, to cooperate with you 
in this work of peace. Indeed, in my address to you on taking 
the oath of office, and before receiving from you the communica- 
tion of this resolution, I had said that "as a necessity, not as a 
choice, we have resorted to the remedy of separating, and hence- 
forth our energies must be directed to the conduct of our own 
affairs, and the perpetuity of the Confederacy which we have 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 59 

formed. If a just perception of mutual interest shall permit us 
to peaceably pursue our separate political career, my most earnest 
desire will then have been fulfilled." 

It was in furtherance of these accordant views of the Congress 
and Executive, that I made choice of three discreet, able" and 
distinguished citizens, who repaired to Washington. Aidell by 
their cordial cooperation, and that of the Secretary of State, every 
effort compatible with self-respect and the dignity of the Con- 
federacy, was exhausted before I allowed myself to vield to the 
conviction that the government of the United States was deter- 
mined to attempt the conquest of this people, and that our cher- 
ished hopes of peace were unobtainable. 

On the arrival of our Commissioners in Washington, on the 
5th of March, they postponed, at the suggestion of a friendly 
intermediator, doing more than giving informal notice of their 
arrival. This was done with a view to afford time to the Presi- 
dent of the United States, who had "just been inaugurated, for 
the discharge of other pressing official duties in the organization 
of his administration, before engaging his attention to'the object 
of their mission. 

It was not until the 12th of the month that they officially 
addressed the Secretary of State, informing him of the purpose 
of their arrival, and stating, in the language of their instructions. 
their wish to make to the government of the United States over- 
tures for the opening of negotiations, assuring the government of 
the United States that the President, Congress, and people of the 
Confederate States, desired a peaceful solution of these great 
questions — that it is neither their interest nor their wish to make 
any demand which is not founded on the strictest principles of 
justice, nor to do any act to injure their late confederates. 

To this communication no formal reply was received until the 
8th of April. During the interval the Commissioners had con- 
sented to waive all questions of form, with the firm resolve to 
avoid war if possible. They went so far even as to hold, during 
that long period, unofficial intercourse through an intermediary, 
whose high position and character inspired the hope of success, 
and through whom constant assurances were received from the 
Government of the United States of peaceful intentions — of its 
determination to evacuate Fort Sumter; and further, that no 
measure changing the existing status prejudicially to the Con- 
federate States was in contemplation ; that in the event of am 
change in regard to Fort Pickens, notice would be given to the 
Commissioners. 

The crooked path of diplomacy can scarcely furnish an exam- 
ple so wanting in courtesy, in candor, and directness, as was the 
course of the United States Government towards our Commis- 



60 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

sioners in Washington. For proof of this, I refer to the annexed 
documents marked, taken in connection with further facts, which 
I now proceed to relate. 

Early in April, the attention of the whole country was attracted 
to extraordinary preparations for an extensive military and naval 
expedition in New York and other Northern ports. These pre- 
parations commenced in secrecy, for an expedition whose destina- 
tion was concealed, and only became known when nearly com- 
pleted; and on the 5th, 6th and 7th of April, transports and 
vessels of war, with troops, munitions, and military supplies, 
sailed from Northern ports bound Southward. 

Alarmed by so extraordinary a demonstration, the' Commis- 
sioners requested the delivery of an answer to their official com- 
munication of the 12th of March, and the reply dated on the 15th 
of the previous month, from which it appears that during the 
whole interval, whilst the Commissioners were receiving assur- 
ances calculated to inspire hope of the success of their mission, 
the Secretary of State and the President of the United States 
had already determined to hold no intercourse with them what- 
ever — to refuse even to listen to any proposals they had to make, 
and had profited by the delay created by their own assurances, 
in order to prepare secretly the means for effective hostile 
operations. 

That these assurances were given, has been virtually confessed 
by the Government of the United States, by its act of sending a 
messenger to Charleston to give notice of its purpose to use force 
if opposed in its intentions of supplying Fort Sumter. 

No more striking proof of the absence of good faith in the 
confidence of the Government of the United States towards the 
Confederacy can be required than is contained in the circum- 
stances which accompanied this notice. 

According to the usual course of navigation, the vessels com- 
posing the expedition, and designed for the relief of Fort Sumter, 
might be looked for in the Charleston harbor on the 9 th of April. 
Yet our Commissioners in Washington were detained under assur- 
ances that notice should be given of any military movement. 

The notice was not addressed to them, but a messenger was 
sent to Charleston to give notice to the Governor of South 
Carolina, and the notice was so given at a late hour on the 8th 
of April, the eve of the very day on which the fleet might be 
expected to arrive. 

That this manoeuvre failed in its purpose was not the fault of 
those who controlled it. A heavy tempest delayed the arrival of 
the expedition, and gave time to the commander of our forces at 
Charleston to ask and receive instructions of the Government. 
Even then, under all the provocation incident to the contemptuous 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 01 

refusal to listen to our Commissioners, and the treacherous course 
of the Government of the United States, I was sincerely anxious 
to avoid the effusion of blood, and directed a proposal to be made 
to the commander of Fort Sumter, who had avowed himself to 
be nearly out of provisions, that we would abstain from directing 
our fire on Fort Sumter if he would promise to not open fire on 
our forces unless first attacked. This proposal was refused. The 
conclusion was that the design of the United States was to place 
the besieging force at Charleston between the simultaneous fire 
of the fleet. The fort should, of course, be at once reduced. This 
order was executed by Gen. Beauregard with skill and success. 
which were naturally to be expected from the well-known char- 
acter of that gallant officer ; and, although the bombardment 
lasted some thirty-three hours, our flag did not wave over the 
battered walls until after the appearance of the hostile fleet off 
Charleston. 

Fortunately not a life was lost on our side, and we were grati- 
fied in being prepared. The necessity of a useless effusion of 
blood by the prudent caution of the officers who commanded the 
fleet in abstaining from the evidently futile effort to enter the 
harbor for the relief of Major Anderson, was spared. 

I refer to the report of the Secretary of War, and the papers 
accompanying it, for further particulars of this brilliant affair. 

In this connection I cannot refrain from a well-deserved tribute 
to the noble State, the eminent soldier qualities of whose people 
were conspicuously displayed. The people of Charleston for 
months had been irritated by the spectacle of a fortress held 
within their principal harbor as a standing menace against their 
peace and independence — built in part with their own money — 
its custody confided with their long consent to an agent who held 
no power over them other than such as they had themselves dele- 
gated for their own benefit, intended to be used by that agent for 
their own protection against foreign attack. How it was held 
out with persistent tenacity as a means of offence against them 
by the very Government which they had established for their 
own protection, is well known. They had beleaguered it for 
months, and felt entire confidence in their power to capture it, 
yet yielded to the requirements of discipline, curbed their impa- 
tience, submitted without complaint to the unaccustomed hard- 
ships, labors, and privations of a protracted siege, and when at 
length their patience was relieved by the signal for attack, and 
success had crowned their steady and gallant conduct, even in 
the very moment of triumph, they evinced a chivalrous regard 
for the feelings of the bravo but unfortunate officer who had been 
compelled to lower his flag. 

All manifestations of exultations were cheeked in his presence. 



62 

Their commanding General, with their cordial approval, and the 
consent of his Government, refrained from imposing any terms 
that would wound the sensibility of the commander of the fort. 
He was permitted to retire with the honors of war, to salute his 
flag, to depart freely, with all his command, and was escorted to 
the vessel on which he embarked, with the highest marks of 
respect from those against whom his guns had so recently been 
directed. 

Not only does every event connected with the siege reflect the 
highest honor on South Carolina, but the forbearance of her 
people, and of this Government, from making any harangue of a 
victory, obtained under circumstances of such peculiar provoca- 
tion, attest to the fullest extent the absence of any purpose be- 
yond securing their own tranquillity, and the sincere desire to 
avoid the calamities of war. 

Scarcely had the President of the United States received intelli- 
gence of the failure of the scheme, which he had devised for the 
reinforcement of Fort Sumter, when he issued the declaration of 
war against this Confederacy, which has prompted me to convoke 
you. In this extraordinary production, that high functionary 
affects total ignorance of the existence of an independent Gov- 
ernment, which, possessing the entire and enthusiastic devotion 
of its people, is exercising its functions, without question, over 
seven sovereign States — over more than five millions of people — 
and over a territory whose area exceeds five hundred thousand 
square miles. 

He terms sovereign States "combinations too powerful to be 
suppressed in the ordinary courts of judicial proceedings, or by 
the powers vested in the marshals by law." 

He calls for an army of seventy-five thousand men to act as the 
posse comitatus in aid of the process of the courts of justice in 
States, where no courts exist whoso mandates and decrees are 
not cheerfully obeyed and respected by a willing people. 

He avows that the first service to be assigned to the forces 
which have been called out, will not be to execute the processes 
of courts, but to capture forts and strongholds, situated within 
the admitted limits of this Confederacy, and garrisoned by its 
troops, and declares that this effort is intended to maintain the 
perpetuity of popular Government. 

lie concludes by commanding the persons composing the 
"combinations" aforesaid, to wit: the five millions of inhabitants 
of these States, to retire peaceably to their respective abodes 
within twenty days. 

Apparently contradictory, as are the terms of this singular 
document, one point was unmistakably evident : The President 
of the United States calls for an army of 75,000 men, whose first 



AND REPOSITORY OP USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 03 

service was to capture our forts. It was a plain declaration of 
war, which I was not at liberty to disregard, because of my 
knowledge that, under the Constitution of the United States, the 
President was usurping a power granted exclusively to' the 
Congress. 

He is the sole organ of communication between that country 
and foreign powers. The law of nations did not permit me to 
question the authority of the Executive of a foreign nation to 
declare war against this Confederacy. Although I mi«ht have 
refrained from taking active measures for our defence, if the 
States of the Union had all imitated the action of Virginia, North 
Carolina, Arkansas, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Missnuri, by 
denouncing it as an unconstitutional usurpation of power, to 
which they refused to respond, I was not at liberty to disregard 
the fact that many of the States seemed quite content to submit 
to the exercise of the powers assumed by the President of the 
United States, and were actively engaged in levying troops for 
the purpose indicated in the proclamation. Deprived of the aid 
of Congress at the moment, I was under the necessity of confin- 
ing my action to a call on the States for volunteers, for the 
common defence, in accordance with the authority you had con- 
fided to me before your adjournment. 

I deemed it proper, further, to issue a proclamation inviting 
applications from persons disposed to aid in our defence, in 
private armed vessels on the high seas, to the end that prepara- 
tions might be made for the immediate issue of letters of marque 
and reprisal, which you alone, under the Constitution, have the 
power to grant. 

I entertain no doubt that you will concur with me in the 
opinion that, in the absence of an organized navy, it will lie 
eminently expedient to supply their place with private armed 
vessels, so happily styled, by the publicists of the United States, 
the militia of the sea, and so often and justly relied on by them 
as an efficient and admirable instrument of defensive warfare. 

I earnestly recommend the immediate passage of a law author- 
izing me to accept the numerous proposals already received. 

I cannot close this review of the acts of the government of the 
United States, without referring to a proclamation issued by their 
President, under date of the l'Jth inst., in which, after declaring 
that an insurrection has broken out in this Confederacy, against 
the government of the United States, he announces a blockade of 
all the ports of these States, and threatens to punish as pirates 
all persons who shall molest any vessels of the United States, 
under letters of marque issued by this Government. _ Notwith- 
standing the authenticity of this proclamation, you will concur 



64 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

■with me that it is hard to believe that it could have emanated 
from a President of the United States. 

Its announcement of a mere paper blockade is so manifestly a 
violation of the law of nations, that it would seem incredible that 
it could have been issued by authority ; but conceding this to be 
the case, so far as the Executive is concerned, it will be difficult 
to satisfy the people of these States that their late confederates 
will sanction its declarations — will determine to ignore the 
usages of civilized nations, and will inaugurate a war of exter- 
mination on both sides, by treating as pirates open enemies acting 
under the authority of commissions issued by an organized 
government. 

If such a proclamation was issued, it could only have been 
published under the sudden influence of passion, and we may 
rest assured that mankind will be spared the horrors of the con- 
flict it seems to invite. 

For the details of the administration of the different depart- 
ments, I refer to the reports of the Secretaries of each, which 
accompany this message. 

The State Department has furnished the necessary instructions 
for those Commissioners who have been sent to England, Prance, 
Russia, and Belgium, since your adjournment, to ask our recogni- 
tion as a member of the family of nations, and to make with 
each of these powers treaties of amity and commerce. 

Further steps will be taken to enter into like negotiations with 
the other European Powers, in pursuance to resolutions passed at 
your last session. 

Sufficient time has not yet elapsed since the departure of these 
Commissioners for the receipt of any intelligence from them. 

As I deem it desirable that commissioners, or other diplomatic 
agents, should also be sent at an early period to the independent 
American Powers south of our Confederacy, with all of whom it 
is our interest and earnest wish to maintain the most cordial 
and friendly relations, I suggest the expediency of making the 
necessary appropriations for that purpose. 

Having been officially notified by the public authorities of the 
State of Virginia, that she had withdrawn from the Union, and 
desired to maintain the closest political relations with us which 
it was possible at this time to establish, I commissioned the Hon. 
Alex. H. Stephens, Vice-President of the Confederate States, to 
represent this Government at Richmond. 

I am happy to inform you that he has concluded a convention 
with the State of Virginia, by which that honored Commonwealth, 
so long and justly distinguished among her sister States, and so 
dear to the hearts of thousands of her children in the Confed- 
erate States, has united her power and her fortunes with ours, 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. G5 

and become one of us. This convention, together with the ordi- 
nance of Virginia adopting the Provisional Constitution of the 
Confederacy, will be laid before you for your'constitutional action. 

I have satisfactory assurances from others of our late confed- 
erates, that they are on the point of adopting similar measures, 
and I cannot doubt that ere you shall have been many weeks in 
session, the whole of the slaveholding States of the late Union 
will respond to the call of honor and aifection, and by uniting 
their fortunes with ours, promote our common interests and 
secure our common safety. 

In the_Treasury Department, regulations have been devised 
and put into execution for carrying out the policy indicated in 
your legislation, on the subject of the navigation of the .Missis- 
sippi river, as well as for the collection of the revenue on the 
frontier. 

Free transit has been secured for vessels' and merchandise pass- 
ing through the Confederate States, and delay and inconvenience 
have been avoided as far as possible. 

In organizing the revenue services for the various railways 
entering our territory, as fast as experience shall indicate the 
possibility of improvement in these regulations, no eifort will be 
spared to free commerce from all unnecessary embarrassnrents 
and obstructions. 

Under your act authorizing a loan, proposals were issued invit- 
ing subscriptions for five millions of dollars, and the call was 
answered by the prompt subscription of eight millions by our 
own citizens, and not a single bid was made under par. 

The rapid development of the purpose of the President of the 
United States to invade our soil, capture our forts, blockade our 
ports, and wage war against us, induced me to direct that the 
entire subscription should be accepted. It will now become 
necessary to raise means to a much larger amount, to defray the 
expenses of maintaining our independence and repelling invasion. 

I invite your special attention to this subject ; and the financial 
condition of the Government, with the suggestion of ways and 
means for the supply of the treasury, will be presented to you in 
a separate communication. 

To the department of Justice you have confided not only the 
organization and supervision of all matters connected with the 
courts of justice, but, also, those connected with patents and with 
the bureau of the public printing. 

Since the adjournment, all the courts, with the exception of 
those of Mississippi and Texas, have been organized by the 
appointment of marshals and district attorneys, and are now 
prepared for the exercise of their functions. In the two States 
just named the gentlemen confirmed as judges declined to accept 



66 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

the appointment, and no nominations have yet been made to fill 
the vacancies. 

I refer you to the 1 report of the Attorney General, and concur 
in his recommendation for immediate legislation, especially upon 
the subject of patent rights. Early provision should be made to 
secure to the subjects of foreign nations the full enjoyment of 
their property in valuable inventions, and to extend to our own 
citizens protection, not only for their own inventions, but for such 
as may have been assigned to them, or may hereafter be assigned 
by persons not alien enemies. 

The patent office business is much more extensive and impor- 
tant than had been anticipated. The applications for patents, 
although confined under the laws exclusively to citizens of our 
Confederacy, already average seventy per month, showing the 
necessity for the prompt organization of a bureau of patents. 

The Secretary of War, in his report and accompanying docu- 
ments, conveys full information concerning the forces, regular, 
volunteer, and provisional, raised and called for under the several 
acts of Congress — -their organization and distribution, also an 
account of the expenditures already made, and the further esti- 
mates for the fiscal year ending on the 18th of February, 1862, 
rendered necessary by recent events. 

I refer to the report, also, for a full history of the occurrences 
in Charleston harbor, prior to, and including the bombardment 
and reduction of Fort Sumter, and of the measures subsequently 
taken fqr common defence on receiving the intelligence of the 
declaration of war against us, made by the President of the 
United States. 

There are now in the field at Charleston, Pensacola, Forts 
Morgan, Jackson, St. Philip, and Pulaski, 19,000 men, and 16,000 
are now en route for Virginia. It is proposed" to organize and 
hold in readiness for instant action, in view of the present 
exigencies of the country, an army of 100,000 men. If further 
force be needed, the wisdom and patriotism of the Congress will 
be confidently appealed to for authority to call into the field addi- 
tional numbers of our noble spirited volunteers, who are con- 
stantly tendering their services far in excess of our wants. 

The operations of the Navy Department have been necessarily 
restricted by the fact that sufficient time has not yet elapsed for 
the purchase or construction of more than a limited number of 
vessels adapted to the public service. Two vessels have been 
purchased and manned, the Sumter and McRae, and are now 
being prepared for sea, at New Orleans, with all possible dis- 
patch. Contracts have also been made at that city, with two 
different establishments, for the casting of ordnance — cannon, 
shot, and shell — with the view to encourage the manufacture of 



AND REPOSITORY OP USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 67 

these articles, so indispensable for our defence, at as many points 
within our territory as possible. I call your attention to the 
recommendation of the Secretary, for the establishment of a 
magazine and laboratory for the preparation of ordnance stores, 
and the necessary appropriation required for that purpose. 

Hitherto such stores have been prepared at the navy yards, and 
no appropriation was made at your last session for this object. 

The Secretary also calls attention to the fact that no provision 
has been made for the payment of invalid pensions to our citizens. 
Many of these persons are advanced in life — they have no means 
of support — and by the secession of these States have been 
deprived of their claim against the government of the United 
States. 

I recommend the appropriation of the sum necessary to pay 
these pensioners, as well as those of the army, whose claim can 
scarcely exceed ?20,000 per annum. 

The Postmaster-General has already succeeded in organizing 
his Department to such an extent as to be in readiness to assume 
the direction of our postal affairs on the occurrence of the con- 
tingency contemplated by the act of 15th March, 1861, or even 
sooner if desired by Congress. 

The various books and circulars have been prepared, and 
measures taken to secure supplies of blanks, postage stamps, 
stamped envelopes, mail-bags, locks, keys, etc. 

He presents a detailed classification and arrangement of the 
clerical force, and asks for its increase. 

An Auditor of the Treasury for this department is necessary, 
and a plan is submitted for the organization of his bureau. 

The great number and magnitude of the accounts of this 
department, require an increase of the clerical force in the 
accounting branch of the treasury. The revenues of this depart- 
ment are collected and distributed in modes peculiar to itself, and 
require a special bureau to secure a proper accountability in the 
administration of its finances. 

I call your attention to the additional legislation required for 
this department — to the recommendation for changes in the law 
fixing the rates of postage on newspapers, and sealed packages 
of certain kinds, and specially to the recommendation of the 
Secretary, in which I concur, that you provide at once for the 
assumption by him of the control of our entire postal service. 

In the military organization of the States, provision is made 
for Brigadier and Major-Generals, but in the army of the Con- 
federate States the highest grade is that of Brigadier-General ; 
hence it will no doubt sometimes occur that where troops of the 
Confederacy do duty with the militia, the General selected for 
the command, and possessed of the views and purposes of this 



68 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

Government, will be superseded by an officer of the militia not 
having the same advantages. 

To avoid contingencies in the least objectionable manner, I re- 
commend that additional rank be given to the General of the Con- 
federate army, and- concurring in the policy of having but one 
grade of Generals*rh' the army of the Confederacy, I recommend 
that the law of its organization be amended, so that the grade be 
that of General. 

To secure thorough military education, it is deemed essential 
that officers should enter upon the study of their profession at an 
early period of life, and have elementary instruction in a military 
school. 

Until such school shall be established, it is recommended that 
cadets be appointed and attached to companies, until they shall 
have attained the age, and shall have acquired the knowledge to 
fit them for the duties of lieutenants. 

I also call your attention to an omission in the law organizing 
the army, in relation to military chaplains, and recommend that 
provision be made for their appointment. 

In conclusion, I congratulate you on the fact, that in every por- 
tion of our country there has been exhibited the most patriotic 
devotion to our common cause. Transportation companies have 
freely tendered the use of their lines for troops and supplies. 

The Presidents of the railroads of the Confederacy, in company 
with others, who control lines of communication with the States 
that we hope soon to greet as sisters, assembled in convention in 
this city, have not only reduced largely the rates heretofore de- 
manded for mail service, and conveyance of troops and munitions, 
but have voluntarily proffered to receive their compensation at 
their reduced rates in the bonds of the Confederacy, for the pur- 
pose of leaving all the resources of the Government at its own dis- 
posal for the common defence. 

Requisitions for troops have been met with such alacrity, that 
the numbers tendering their service have in ettery instance greatly 
exceeded the demand. Men of the highest official and social posi- 
tion are serving as volunteers in the ranks. The gravity of age, 
the zeal of youth, rival each other in the desire to be foremost in 
the public defence ; and though aft no other point than the one 
heretofore noticed have they been stimulated by the excitement 
incident to actual engagement, and the hope of distinction for in- 
dividual deportment, they have borne, what for new troops is the 
most severe ordeal, patient toil, constant vigil, and all the exposure 
and discomfort of active service with a resolution and fortitude 
such as to command the approbation and justify the highest 
expectation of their conduct, when active valor shall be required 
in place of steady endurance. 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 69 

A people thus united and resolute cannot shrink from any sac- 
rifice which they may be called on to make ; nor can there be a 
reasonable doubt of their final success ; however long and severe 
may be the test of their determination to maintain their birthright 
of freedom and equality as a trust which it is their first duty to 
transmit unblemished to their posterity. 

A bounteous Providence cheers us with the promise of abundant 
crops. 

The field of grain which will, within a few weeks, be ready for 
the sickle, gives assurance of the amplest supply of food ; whilst 
the corn, cotton, and other staple productions of our soil, afford 
abundant proof that up to this period the season has been pro- 
pitious. 

"We feel that our cause is just and holy. 

We protest solemnly, in the face of mankind, that we desire 
peace at any sacrifice, save that of honor. 

In independence we seek no conquest, no aggrandizement, no 
cession of any kind from the States with which we have lately 
confederated. All we ask is to be let alone — that those who never 
held power over us, shall not now attempt our subjugation by 
arms. This we will, we must resist, to the direst extremity. 

The moment that this pretension is abandoned, the sword will 
drop from our grasp, and we shall be ready to enter into treaties 
of amity and commerce that cannot but be mutually beneficial. 

So long as this pretension is maintained, with firm reliance on 
that Divine Power which covers with its protection the just cause, 
we will continue to struggle for our inherent rights to freedom, 
independence, and self-government. 

JEFFERSON DAVIS. 

Montgomery, April 29, 1S61. 



70 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 



COTTON AND ITS SUPPLY. 



The manufacturing and commercial communities are deeply 
exercised at present, respecting the supply of cotton for 
manufacturing purposes. Very large meetings have been 
held recently in England, and active measures taken to en- 
courage the cultivation and development of cotton in several 
of the British colonies ; and in private, as well as public, 
cotton has been the universal theme of discussion. The 
whole cotton crop of America, in 1860, was 4,675,770 bales; 
and of this, 3,697,727 bales were exported, and 978,043 
bales used at home. England alone took 2,582,000 bales, 
which amounted to about four-fifths of her entire consump- 
tion. It is no wonder that this question causes considerable 
excitement at present, and especially in England, where four 
millions of persons are stated to be connected with, and de- 
pendent for support on, the cotton manufacture. 

The great desire of cotton manufacturers is to increase the 
supply of cotton in many different parts of the world, so 
that they may not be so dependent upon one particular sec- 
tion of the globe. Several erroneous views have lately been 
propagated on this subject. The growers of any material 
are just as dependent upon consumers as the latter are upon 
the former. The laws of trade regulate these things, and 
there is no earthly mode of controlling the influence of the 
cotton-growing region of the Gulf of Florida but by raising 
as good qualities of cotton, at lower prices, in other sections 
of the world. Now the question arises : " Can this be ac- 
complished ?" So far as we have knowledge of the various 



AND REPOSITORY CF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 71 

climates, we tliink it cannot, without new agencies being 
brought into requisition. Cotton requires a warm, moist 
climate ; it is as sensitive to droughts as to frosts, and so far 
as we know, the warm breezes of the Gulf of Florida supply 
that moisture to the plant in America, which cannot be ob- 
tained in any other warm climate without artificial irrigation. 
Cotton is raised in Egypt, the land of no rain ; but the 
plants are watered by artificial agencies, from the Nile, at a 
great cost for such labor. In India, Africa, and China, wet 
and dry seasons prevail ; there are no gentle showers of fre- 
quent recurrence, as in the Southern States ; therefore, the 
droughts in those countries are unfavorable to the cultiva- 
tion of cotton, as compared with America. The develop- 
ment of the American cotton trade affords evidence of great 
natural advantages. The cotton fields of the Southern 
States embrace an area of 500,000 square miles, and the 
capital invested in the cultivation of the plant amounts to 
8900,000,000. Seventy years ago, the exports of our cotton 
were only 420 bales — not one-tenth of the amount furnished 
by several countries to England. Now the South furnishes 
five-sevenths of the surplus cotton product of the entire world; 
it has increased, while other cotton countries have decreased. 
There must be a reason for this, as the best American her- 
baceous cotton is not indigenous to the soil ; the seed was 
first imported. We can only attribute these results to great 
care in its culture, and the natural advantages of climate, 
which we have described. 



72 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC 



COTTON CROP OP THE UNITED STATES. 

Statement and Total Amount for the year ending Slst 
August, 1861. 

Bales. Total. 

LOUISIANA. 

Export from New Orleans, 

To Foreign ports 1,783,673 

To Coastwise ports 132,179 

Burnt at New Orleans 3,276 

Stock, 1st September, 1861 10^118 

1,929,246 

Deduct, 

Received from Mobile 48,270 

Eeceived from Montgomery, etc 11,551 

Received from Florida 13,279 

Received from Texas 30,613 

Stock, 1st September, 1860 73,934 

177,647 1,751,599 

ALABAMA. 

Export from Mobile, 

To Foreign ports 456,421 

To Coastwise ports 127,574 

Manufactured in Mobile, (estimated) 2,000 

Stock, 1st September, 1861 2,481 

688,476 

Deduct, 

Stock, 1st September, 1860 41,682 546,794 

TEXAS. 

Export from Galveston, etc., 

To Foreign ports 63,209 

To Coastwise ports 84 254 

Stock, 1st September, 1861 452 

„ , 147,015 

Deduct, 

Stock, 1st September, 1860 3 168 144 747 

FLORIDA. 

Export from Apalachicola, St. Mark, etc.,! 5 

To Foreign ports 28 073 

To Coastwise ports 85,953 

Burnt at St. Mark's 'l50 

Stock, 1st September, 1861 7,860 

Deduct, 

Stock, 1st September, 1860 846 121172 



AND REPOSITORY OP USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 73 

Bales. Total. 

GEORGIA. 

Export from Savannah, 

To Foreign ports — 

Uplands 293,746 

Sea Islands 8 441 

To Coastwise ports — 

Uplands 170,572 

Sea Islands 11,512 

Stock in Savannah, 1st September, 1861 4^102 

Stock in Augusta, etc., 1st August, 1861 5,991 

494,361 

Deduct, 

Received from Florida — 

Sea Islands 1,033 

Uplands 6,188 

Stock in Savannah, September 1st, 1860 4,307 

Stock in Augusta, etc., 1st Sept., 1860 5,252 

south Carolina. 16,780 477,584 

Export from Charleston and Georgetown, S. C, 
To Foreign ports — 

Uplands 199,345 

Sea Islands 15,043 

To Coastwise ports — 

Uplands 121,663 

Sea Islands 8,355 

Burnt at Charleston 564 

Stock in Charleston, 1st September, 1861 2,899 

347,869 

Deduct, 
Received from Florida and Savannah — 

Sea Islands 255 

Uplands 2,378 

Stock in Charleston, 1st September, 1860 8,897 

NORTH CAROLINA. 11,530 336,339 
Export, 

To Foreign ports 195 

To Coastwise ports 56,100 



VIRGINIA. 

To Foreign ports 870 

To Coastwise ports 61,129 

Manufactured, (taken from the ports,) 16,933 

Stock, 1st September, 1861 2,000 



56,295 



80,932 



Deduct, 
Stock, 1st September, 1860 2,800 78,132 



74 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

Bales. Total. 

TENNESSEE, ETC. 

Shipments from Memphis, Tenn 369,857 

Shipments from Nashville, Tenn 16,471 

Shipments from Columbus and Hickman, Ky. 5,500 

Stock at Memphis, 1st September, 1861 1,671 



Deduct, 

Shipments to New Orleans 196,366 

Manufactured on the Ohio, etc 52,000 

Stock, 1st September, 1860 1,709 



393,499 



250,075 143,424 



Trade and Shipping of the Seceded States, for the year 
ending June 30, 1859. 

Principal Ports. Reg. Tonnage. En. Tonnage. 

Charleston, S. C 36,496 25,087 

Savannah, Ga 25,086 12,757 

Mobile, Ala 22,935 22,836 

New Orleans, La 128,435 86,982 

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1858, the American and 
foreign tonnage and number of vessels which entered all the ports 
in the seceded States, including Texas, were as follows : 

Cotton States. ., Vessels. Tonnage. 

Alabama 227 149,415 

Georgia 200 90,156 

Louisiana 1,129 758,371 

Florida 290 58,638 

North Carolina 288 42,735 

Texas 39 17,728 

South Carolina 395 153,834 



Total 2,563 1,254,882 

The value of exports and imports at the ports in the above States, 
was as follows, for the years named : 

Exports. Imports. 



1858 $141,267,372 

1859 171,618,814 



Total $312,886,186 



1858 $23,165,457 

1859 29,124,538 



Total $52,289,905 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 



75 



The ports most prominent for their value of exports, were New 

Orleans, Mobile, Savannah, and Charleston. For the year ending 
June 30, 1859, they stand as follows : 

Exports of Domestic Produce. Imports. 

New Orleans $100,890,689 $18,109,516 

Mobile 28,933,652 788,164 

Savannah 15,372,696 624,599 

Charleston 17,902,194 1,438,535 

Total $163,099,031 $21,200,814 

21,200,814 



Excess of exports over imports.. $141,898,217 

The total value of exports from the 

United States for the year ending 

June 30, 1859, of all kinds of 

foreign and domestic produce, 

with bullion and specie, ($63,- 

887,411,) amounted to 338,763,130 

Value of domestic produce from the 

four ports above 163,099,031 

Balance $175,669,109 

Thus showing that the domestic exports of these four ports of the 
seceding States alone, nearly equalled one-half of the entire exports 
of the United States, of every description. 



A Statement of the Supply and Consumption of Cotton 
in Europe and the United States, for the ten years 
ending with 1860. 



TEAK. 


U. States 
Crop. 


Foreign 
Supply. 


TOTAL. 


Cons'mp- 
tion in 
Europe. 


Cons'mp- 

tion in 
U. States. 


TOTAI. 


1851 


2,355,000 
3.015,000 
3,263,000 
2,930,000 
2.847,000 
3,529,000 
2.940,000 
3,114,000 
3,851,000 
4,076,000 


680,000 
739,000 
882,000 
630,000 
783,000 
843,000 

1,096,000 
925,000 

1,018,000 
884,000 


3,035,000 
3,754.000 
4,145,000 
3,560,000 
3,630,000 
4,372,000 
4,036,000 
4.039,000 
4.869,000 
5,560,000 


2,618,000 
3,112,000 
3,013,000 
3,116,000 
3,316,000 
3,673,000 
3,079,000 
3,510,000 
3,651,000 
4,321,000 


404,000 
603,000 
671,000 
610,000 
593,000 
694,000 
702,000 
596,600 
928,1100 
978,000 


3,022.000 


1852 


3.715,000 


1853 


3,084,000 


1854 


3,726,000 


1855 


3,909,000 


1856 


4,367,000 


1857 


3,781,000 


1858 


4.112,000 


1859 


4.579,000 


1860 


5.299,000 








32,520,000 


8,480,000 


41,000,000 


33,415,000 


6,779,000 


40,194,000 



76 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

SUGAR CROP OF LOUISIANA FOR 1860. 

And Annual Statement of the Sugar Market of JY. Orleans. 

The crop, according to Mr. Champonier's annual sugar 
statement, amounted to 228,753 hhds, averaging 1150 lbs, 
and making an aggregate weight of 263,065,000 lbs. This 
embraced 195,490 hhds of Brown Sugar, made by the old 
process, and 33,263 refined, clarified, etc., including cistern 
bottoms, the whole being the product of 1292 Sugar Houses, 
of which 1009 were worked by steam, and 283 by horse 
power. The crop of the preceding year amounted to 221,840 
hhds, weighing 255,115,750 lbs, showing an increase for the 
last year ot over 6900 hhds, or about 7,950,000 lbs. 

According to our calculations, the price of the entire crop 
has averaged 5 J, against 7ic last year. At this average, and 
taking the estimate of 1150 lbs to the hogshead, the aggre- 
gate value of the crop of 228,753 hhds is $14,468^627, 
against $18,190,880, the product of 221,840 hhds last year; 
or a decrease of $3,722,253. The receipts at the levee since 
the 1st of September have been 174,637 hhds and 5976 
tierces and bbls, against 175,776 hhds and 4808 tierces and 
bbls last year. 

The estimated stock on hand at the close of last season was 
1000 hhds, and this amount, added to the crop, would make 
a supply of 229,753 hhds, and including the exports from 
Attakapas, 42,163 hhds; consumption of the city and 
neighborhood, 30,000 hhds ; taken for refining, in the city 
and other parts of the State, including cistern bottoms, 
10,000 hhds ; estimated quantity taken to fill up hhds for 
shipment, 15,000 hhds ; stock now on hand in the State, es- 
timated at 5,000 hhds ; leaving as the quantity taken for the 
West, etc., 127,590 hhds, against 133,423 hhds last year, or 
a decrease of 5833 hhds. The quantity shipped to Atlantic 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 77 

ports is 32,323 hhds, against 33,553 hhds last year; showing 
a decrease of 1230 hhds. 

According to a statement annually made up by the New- 
York Shipping and Commercial List, the total imports of 
foreign Sugar, into the United States, for the year ended 
December 31st, 1860, were 341,532 tons, (equal to 637,526 
hogsheads of 1200 lbs each,) against 262,829 tons, or 490,614 
hogsheads in 1859 ; and the quantity of this description 
taken for consumption in 1860, was 296,950 tons, against 
239,034 tons in 1859; or an increase of about 24 } ^ ct. 
The consumption of both foreign and domestic cane-Sugar 
in 1860, was 415,281 tons, against 431,184 tons in 1859 ; or 
a decrease in the total consumption of nearly 3| ^ ct. Be- 
sides the above, it is estimated that there entered into the 
consumption 13,392 tons of Sugar made from foreign and 
domestic Molasses, which, with the consumption of California 
and Oregon, estimated at 8000 tons, would give a grand total 
for the consumption of the United States, in 1860, of 
464,673 tons, against 478,737 in 1859. This amount is 
equal to 1,040,867,520 lbs, or 867,389 hogsheads of 1200 
fb.s each, giving an average (estimating the whole population 
at 30,000,000) of nearly 34| ft>s to each man, woman, and 
child, including slaves. 

We have compiled from our records the annexed State- 
ment of the Sogar Product of Louisiana for the past twenty- 
seven years, showing the amount of each year's crop in 
hogsheads and pounds, with the gross average value ^ hogs- 
head and total, the proportions taken by Atlantic ports and 
Western States, and the date of the first receipt of each 
crop. By this statement, it will be seen that the total pro- 
duct of Louisiana, from 1834 to 1860, inclusive, a period of 
twenty-seven years, was 5,065,302 hhds, valued at $280,- 
789,767, and that of this quantity the Atlantic ports took 



78 



THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 



1,551,529 hlids, and the Western States 2,575,467 hhds. 
The crops from 1828 (which is as far back as our estimates 
extend) to 1833, summed up 281,000 hogsheads, which 
would make the total product, in a period of thirty-two years, 
5,346 302 hogsheads, or 5,718,347,450 pounds. We would 
here remark, that up to 1848, the product in hogsheads is 
estimated, and 1000 pounds taken as the average weight ^ 
hogshead ; but for the crops since that date, we have taken 
the figures of Mr. P A. Champonier, as we find them in his 
Annual Statements. 



TOTAL CROP. 



1834. 

1835. 
1836. 
1837. 
1838. 
1839. 
1840. 
1841. 
1842. 
1843. 
1844. 
1845. 
1846.. 
1847. 
1848.. 
1849.. 
1850., 
1851.. 
1852.. 
1853., 
1854.. 
1855.. 
1856.. 
1857.. 
1858.. 
1859.. 
I860.. 



Total 5,065,301 



Hhds. 



100,000 

30,000 

70,000 

65,000 

70,000 

115,000 

87,000 

90,000 

140,000 

100,000 

200,000 

186,650 

140,000 

240,000 

220,000 

247,923 

211,303 

236,547 

321,931 

449,324 

346,635 

231,427 

73,976 

279,697 

362,296 

221,840 

228,753 



Pounds. 



Av. Price 
Hhd. 



100,000,000 

30,000,000 

70,000,000 

05,000,000 

70,000,000 

115,000,000 

87,000,000 

90,000,000 

140,000,000 

100,000,000 

200,000,000 

186,650,000 

140,000,000 

240,000,000 

220,000,000 

269,769,000 

231,194,000 

257,138,000 

368,129,000 

495,156,000 

385,726,000 

254,569,000 

81,373,000 

307,666,700 

414,796,000 

255,115,750 

263,065,000 



5,437,347,450 



$60 00 
90 00 
60 00 
62 50 

62 50 
50 00 
55 00 
40 00 
42 50 
60 00 
45 00 
55 00 
70 00 
40 00 
40 00 
50 00 
60 00 
50 00 
48 00 
35 00 
52 00 
70 00 

110 00 
64 00 
69 00 
82 00 

63 25 



Total Value. 



$6,000,000 

2,700,000 

4,200,000 

5,062,500 

4,375,000 

5,750,000 

4,785,000 

8,600,000 

4,750,000 

6,000,000 

9,000,000 

10,265,750 

9,800,000 

9,600,000 

8,800,000 

12,396,150 

12,678,180 

11,827,350 

15,452,688 

15,726,340 

18,025,020 

16,199,890 

8,137,360 

17,900,608 

24,998,424 

18,190.880 

14,408,627 



280,789,767 



AND KEFOSITORY OP USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 



79 



1834. 
1835. 
1836. 
1837. 
1838. 
1839. 
1840. 
1841. 
1842. 
1843., 
1844.. 
1845.. 
1846.. 
1847. 
1848.. 
1849.. 
1850.. 
1851.. 
1852.. 
1853 .. 
1854.. 
1855.. 
1856.. 
1857.. 
1858.. 
1859.. 
I860.. 



Exported to 

Atlantic Ports 

Hogsheads. 



Total 1,551,529 



45,500 
1,500 
26,300 
24,500 
26,500 
42,600 
38,500 
28,000 
63,000 
34,000 
101,000 
79,000 
45,500 
84,000 
90,000 
90,000 
45,000 
42,000 
82,000 
166,000 
122,000 
39,133 
1,850 
73,885 
93,885 
33,553 
32,323 



Exported to 
Western States. 

Hogsheads 



44,500 

23,500 

35,000 

32,500 

32,500 

58,000 

46,500 

50,000 

60,000 

52,000 

70,000 

75,000 

70,000 

115,000 

108,000 

125,000 

123,000 

149,000 

206,000 

185,000 

143,000 

131,027 

39,576 

153,012 

187,339 

133,423 

127,590 



2,575,467 



First Receipts 

of 

New Crop. 



October 15. 
November 5. 
November 1. 
November 1. 
October 17. 
October 13. 
October 14. 
October 13. 
October 12. 
October 22. 
October 3. 
October 4. 
October 7. 
October 2. 
October 5. 
October 11. 
October 17. 
October 19. 
October 9. 
October 6. 
October 4. 
October 10. 
November 3. 
September 29. 
September 20. 
October 8. 
Seplember27. 



EXTENT OF THE TOBACCO INTEEEST. 

An able memorial, addressed by a leading and well-known 
citizen of Richmond to the Macon Convention, furnishes 
some valuable and interesting statistics on the tobacco inter- 
est. We have been put at liberty to use some of these sta- 
tistics, gathered from the manuscript of the writer. 

The annual revenue from tobacco in England is about 
twenty-five millions of dollars ; the consumption being, for 



80 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

1858, 33,739,133 pounds; in 1859, 34,459,864 pounds; and 
in 1860, 35,306,846 pounds. In 1858, our exports to 
England and her colonies were twenty-three thousand nine 
hundred and ninety-four hogsheads, four thousand two hun- 
dred and twenty-three boxes, and one thousand four hundred 
and fifty-seven bales — their whole value in dollars, as de- 
clared at the custom-houses of file United States, was four 
millions three hundred and ninety-nine thousand three hun- 
dred and sixty-one dollars. In 1859, the official returns 
make our exports 37,906 hogsheads, 2,068 boxes, 3,891 
bales, valued at $6,000,234; in other words, the value of 
this article shipped to England by us, when grown and 
placed on shipboard, is, on an average, five millions ; and, 
allowing the consumption of Great Britain to be four-fifths 
of American tobacco, the crop of our tobacco yields to her 
exchequer four times as much as it does to our : planters, 
without any charge for that which she exports, or for that 
which goes to her colonies direct. The duty is three 
shillings sterling on each pound of leaf tobacco, and five per 
cent, on the manufactured, |about nine shillings and six- 
pence — say seventy-five cents on leaf, and two dollars and 
twenty-five cents on the manufactured, per pound. 

In France, in the year 1791, the Regie and Farmers Gen- 
eral were abolished, and a duty of 20 francs on 100 pounds 
imported by foreign vessels, and three-fourths of that sum, 
if on French vessels, was substituted ; and, in 1799, it was 
increased to sixty-six francs on that in foreign vessels, and 
on that in French vessels to forty-four francs, with an excise 
tax of forty centimes (about eighty cents) on the kilogramme 
(2 20-100 pounds) was imposed on the manufacturer, and 
twenty-four centimes (about five cents) the kilogramme on 
leaf or smoking tobacco. Under this system the revenue 
amounted to only $1,129,708. In 1804, the whole subject 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 81 

was entrusted to the general administration of the customs, 
the fullest rigor was exercised, and domiciliary visits were 
made to both sellers and manufacturers. The revenue was 
brought up to $12,600,000 ; the duties were doubled in 1804, 
and again in 1806, with all possible appliances of the most 
rigid surveillance. The revenue only reached, in 1811, 
$16,000,000. From this period, the sale and manufacture 
became a government monopoly. By this system, the revenue 
was brought up to $25,000,000, in 1820. The sales that 
year, by government, were 12,645,277 kilogrammes, produc- 
ing $64,027,137 Deducting expenses of cost of tobacco, and 
of the manufacture, the net revenue was 42,219,604 francs. 
In 1830, the sales were 11,169,554 kilogrammes ; proceeds, 
$81,366,947; the costs of tobacco, and manufacture, 
$22,338,035; net revenue, $59,028,912. In 1838, tobacco, 
purchased chiefly in America, was 6,520,569 kilogrammes, 
valued at $14,497,309. The consumption of all tobacco in 
France, in 1858, was 21,981,096 kilogrammes; in 1859, 
24,099,837 kilogrammes. In 1826, the declared value of 
American, and all other tobacco, per pound, was about nine- 
teen cents, (or, to use French terms,) two francs thirty 
centimes for the kilogramme. In 1859, $145 per kilo- 
gramme, or about twelve cents per pound, was the declared 
value of the tobacco, as received at the ports of France. Of 
the receipts, American tobacco constituted 19,846,198 kilo- 
grammes, say 43,661,635 pounds — about thirty thousand 
hogsheads in all. The revenue for 1860 was the enormous 
sum of $36,000,000, say 180,000,000 francs, and employed 
thirty thousand persons in its culture, manufacture, and sale. 
On this subject, an argument addressed to the French Gov- 
ernment, through the Court de Vergennes, by Mr. Jefferson, 
dated at Paris, August 15th, 1785, is full of argument, and 
we may at once recognize that it had produced its impres- 
4 



82 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

sion for six years afterwards. The ports were thrown open 
to tobacco, at very low duties, comparatively. On the 22d 
of June, 1848, M. Thouret laid a proposition before the 
French Assembly, " that the sale of tobacco and snuff 
should no longer be exclusively in the hands of the Govern- 
ment. The proposition did not receive twenty -Jive votes of 
aa assembly of more than six hundred members, and thus fell 
to the ground — that number of assenting votes being re- 
quired before any proposition can come before the Chambers, 
even for consideration. This vote would seem to show that 
public opinion in France was in favor of the monopoly, 
when we consider that the members have been so recently 
chosen by universal suffrage throughout all parts of France." 
These extracts are from Mr. Rush's late work, page 481. 
This is the care which the late Government bestowed on our 
commercial interests. Mr. Jefferson not only wrote down 
his conversations on the subject, but he submitted facts and 
considerations worthy of the great interests at stake. The 
indifferent memorandum by Mr. Rush was enough for him 
and the interests he represented in France. The article of 
tobacco is a monopoly in Sardinia, and all Italy, and in 
Austria, and also in Spain. A very valuable note on the 
last principle, page 179, taken from Jefferson's report in 
1799, and a report on commercial relations of the United 
States, 34th Congress, first session, will be used by those who 
would wish to investigate the subject further. We may 
affirm that, upon the export of two hundred millions of 
pounds of manufactured and leaf tobacco, which is below the 
average exports annually, the foreign governments of the 
world collect, at the least, seventy-five to one hundred mil- 
lions dollars of revenue. 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 



THE TOBACCO TRADE OF VIRGINIA. 

Richmond, October 30, 1861. 
The average value per hogshead of the tobacco and stems exported 
each year, during the past four •' tobacco years," was as follows : 

In 1860-61 S 90 00 I In 185S-50 $128 00 

In 1859-60 100 00 | In 1857-58 134 00 

The following tables will show, at a glance, the receipts, inspec- 
tions, exports, and stocks for five years past : 





Receipts. 


Inspections. 


Exports. 


Stocks. Oct. 1. 


1860-'61 

1859-'60 

185S-59 

1S57-'5S 


36,324 

53.408 

47,444 

61.808 


81,676 
40,633 
41.707 
44.616 
30,534 


19.460 
20.474 
22.713 
33.153 
20.143 


16,800 

17,331 

0.711 

7.000 

3 y°4 







The figures showing the exports in 1850-'57 do not include coast- 
wise shipments, no available record having been kept for that season. 

Foreign — The exports of leaf tobacco from Richmond, direct to 
foreign ports, from October 1st to June 1st, (when the blockade pre- 
cluded further shipments,) are exhibited in the following table, in 
connection with the exports for the full term of the preceding four 
" tobacco years: " 





1S60-1. 

000 

2.902 

230 

47 

2,190 


IS59-C0. 

1,756 

2,475 

411 

520 
2,913 


1S5S-9. 


1S57-8. 


1S.50-7. 


To Antwerp 

To Bordeaux 


931 

1.942 
656 

458 

7C5 

352 

5,811 

3,754 

2.543 

835 

255 
472 


1,847 
1,145 

4.085 
937 

521 
240 

2.785 

5.832 

1,901 

693 

581 
5.902 


1,556 


To Bremen 


3,360 


To Bristol 

To Brit. Am. Prov.. 

To Dublin 

To Genoa 


538 
700 


To Gibraltar 




To Glasgow 




To Havre 


750 2.100 


2.162 


To Leith 


3,113 

4°0 


361 
2.889 
2,461 

690 

1,131 

1,525 

18,793 






4,253 


To London 


1,722 


To Marseilles 

To Porto Rico 

To EotterJam 


270 


650 
6 

5,296 






Total hogsheads.. 


10,582 


18,774 


27,129 


20,143 



84 



THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 



The exports to France in 1860-1, were only 1,020 hhds., against 
4,012 hhds. in 1859-'00, and 7,577 hhds. in 1858-'9. The exports 
to Great Britain and Ireland in 1860-'l were 3,703 hhds., against 
6,142 hhds. in 1859-'60, and 7,305 hhds. in 1858-'9. The net 
decrease of the shipments to all ports in 1860-'l, as compared with 
1849-'00, is 8,216 hhds. 

The value of the tobacco and stems exported from Richmond, for 
the past four years, is as follows : 



Quarter Ending. 


1857-'8. 


1858-'9. 


1859-'60. 


1860-'61. 


March 31st 


553,094 

68,182 

812,943 

2,913,511 


533,071 

53,917 

576,999 

1,900,493 


702,032 

193,714 

171,942 

1,553,401 


620,557 
148,468 


June 30th 


347,551 


September 30th... 




Total 


$4,348,600 


3,064,480 


2,681,489 


1,116,580 





Coastwise. — -Export of leaf tobacco to New York, Philadelphia, and 
Baltimore, and of stems to Baltimore, for four years past, as follows : 





To N. 1 


18C0-'l 


2,047 


1859-'60 


1,045 
1,172 
2,115 


1858 '9 


1857-'8 



To Pa. 



40 

32 

44 

115 



To Bait. 



4,207 
2,539 
1,006 
2,192 



Total. Stems to B. 



6,300 
4,216 

2 222 
4^522 



1,418 


2,937 


4,208 


1,952 



In the registration of exports, by packets, from the dock, there is 
no discrimination between leaf and stems. The combined coastwise 
shipments during the past twelve months, were 2,927 hhds., against 
4,600 hhds. the previous season, and 2,417 hhds. in 1858-'9. The 
shipments of the past season include 150 hhds. sent to City Point, in 
July, to be forwarded (as was believed,) to the North Carolina coast 
for shipment to Europe. 

RECAPITULATION. 





1858-'9. 


1859-'60. 


1860-1. 




2,417 
700 

1,717 
2,222 

3,939 
18,774 


4,660 
1,200 

3,460 
4,216 

7,676 
18,798 


2,927 
400 


Deduct stems (estimated) 


Exports of leaf by steamers 


2,527 
0,360 


Total coastwise exports of loaf ,, 


8,887 
10,582 




22,713 


26,474 


19 469 







AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 



85 



MANUFACTURED TOBACCO. 

We annex our annual statistics of the business in manufactured 
tobacco : 

Receipts. — The receipts at Richmond, during the past four sea- 
eons, from the factories at Lynchburg, Danville, etc., were as follows : 

Packages. Packages. 

1857-8 119,290 I 1859-'60 159,035 

1858-'9 154,896 | 1860-'61 50,251 

Exports. — The exports from Richmond, by steamers, during the 
past four seasons, were as follows : 



1857-'58. 
lS58-'59. 
1859^60. 
1860-'61. 



To New-York. 



108,352 

149.945 

114,041 

33,112 



To Philadel. 



36,277 
41,435 
34,306 
12,430 



To Baltimore, 



86.393 
123,761 
126,868 

49,010 



Total. 

230.962 
315.141 

275,275 
94,552 



The exports from the dock, for the same four seasons, were as 
follows : 

Packages. Packages. 



1857-'8 49,493 

1858-'9 59,858 



1859-60 60,820 

1860-01 24,850 



The business of the year just closed compares with that of the 
previous season, as follows: 





1S59-'Ci0. 


1S60-'61. 


Total exports from dock, [packages] 

Total exports by steamers, " 


60.820 
275,275 


24.856 
94,552 




336.095 
159,035 


119,408 




50,251 






Products of city factories exported 


175,000 


69,157 



86 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

RATES OF POSTAGE IN THE CONFEDERATE 
STATES OF AMERICA 

Rates of Postage between Places within the Con- 
federate States of America. — On Letters. — Single let- 
ters, not exceeding half an ounce in weight, for any distance 
under 500 miles, 5 cents ; for any distance over 500 miles, 
10 cents ; an additional single rate for each additional half 
ounce or less. Drop letters, 2 cents each. In the fore- 
going cases, the postage to be prepaid by stamps or stamped 
envelopes. Advertised letters, 2 cents each. 

On Packages — Containing other than printed or written 
matter — money packages are included in this class — to be 
rated by weight, as letters are rated, and to be charged 
double the rates of postage on letters, to wit : For any dis- 
tance under 500 miles, 10 cents for each half ounce or less ; 
for any distance over 500 miles, 20 cents for each half ounce 
or less. In all cases to be prepaid by stamps or stamped en- 
velopes. 

On Neuspapers sent to regular and hona fide subscribers 
from the office of publication, and not exceeding 3 ounces in 
weight : 

Within the State where Published. — Weekly paper, 6& 
cents per quarter; semi-weekly paper, 13 cents per quarter; 
tri-weekly paper, 19* cents per quarter; daily paper, 39 cents 
per quarter. In all cases the postage to be paid quarterly in 
advance, at the offices of the subscribers. 

Without the State ichere Published. — Weekly paper, 13 
cents per quarter; semi-weekly paper, 26 cents per quarter; 
tri-weekly paper, 39 cents per quarter ; daily paper, 78 cents 
per quarter. In all cases the postage to be paid quarterly in 
advance, at the offices of the subscribers. 

On Periodicals sent to regular and bona fide subscribers 



AND REPOSITORY OP USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 87 

from the office of publication, and not exceeding 11 ounce in 
weight : 

Within the State where Published. — Monthly, 3 cents 
per quarter, or 1 cent for each number; semi-monthly, 6 
cents per quarter, or 1 cent for each number — an additional 
cent each number for every additional ounce or less beyond 
the first 1} ounce; bi-monthly, or quarterly, 1 cent an 
ounce. In all cases, the postage to be paid quarterly in ad- 
vance, at the offices of subscribers. 

Without the State where Published. — Not exceeding 1} 
ounce in weight : 

Monthly, 6 cents per quarter, or 2 cents for each number; 
semi-monthly, 12 cents per quarter, or 2 cents for each 
number — two cents additional for every additional ounce or 
less beyond the first 1J ounce; bi-monthly, or quarterly, 2 
cents an ounce. In all cases the postage to be paid quar- 
terly in advance at the offices of the subscribers. 

On Transient Printed Matter. — Every other newspaper, 
pamphlet, periodical, and magazine, each circular not sealed, 
hand-bill, and engraving, not exceeding three ounces in 
weight, 2 cents, for any distance — two cents additional for 
each additional ounce or less beyond the first 3 ounces. In 
all cases, the postage to be prepaid by stamps or stamped 
envelopes. 

Franking Privilege. — The following persons only are en- 
titled to the franking privilege, and in all cases strictly con- 
fined to official business : Postmaster-General, his Chief 
Clerk, Auditor of the Treasury for the Postoffice Depart- 
ment, and Deputy Postmasters. 



88 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

CHRONICLE OP EVENTS AND DIARY OF THE 
PRESENT REVOLUTION. 

December 20, 1860 Sudden evacuation of Fort Moul- 
trie by Major Anderson, United States army. He spikes the 
guns, burns the gun-carriages, and retreats to Fort Sumter, 
which he occupies. 

December 27 Capture of Fort Moultrie and Castle 

Pinckney by the South Carolina troops. Captain Coste sur- 
renders the revenue-cutter Aiken. 

January 3, 1861 Capture of Fort Pulaski by the Sa- 
vannah troops. 

January 3 The arsenal at Mount Vernon, Ala., with 

20,000 stand of arms, seized by the Alabama troops. 

January 4 Fort Morgan, in Mobile Bay, taken by the 

Alabama troops. 

January 9 The steamship Star of the West fired into 

and driven off by the South Carolina batteries on Morris' 
Island. Failure of the attempt to reinforce Fort Sumter. 

January 10 Forts Jackson, St. Philips and Pike, near 

New Orleans, captured by the Louisiana troops. 

January 13 Capture of the Pensacola Navy- Yard, and 

Forts Barrancas and McRae. Major Chase shortly after- 
wards takes command, and the siege of Fort Pickens com- 
mences. 

January 13 Surrender of the Baton Rouge arsenal to 

the Louisiana troops. 

January 31 The New Orleans Mint and Custom-House 

taken. 

February 2 Seizure of the Little Rock arsenal by the 

Arkansas troops. 

February 4 Surrender of the revenue-cutter Cass to 

the Alabama authorities. 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 89 

February 16 General Twiggs transfers the public prop- 
erty in Texas to the State authorities. Colonel Waite, U S. 
A., surrenders San Antonio to Colonel Ben. McCulloch and 
his Texas Rangers. 

February IS Inauguration of President Davis at Mont- 
gomery, Alabama. 

March 2 The revenue-cutter Dodge seized by the au- 
thorities of Texas. 

March 5 General Beauregard assumes command of the 

troops besieging Fort Sumter. 

March 12 Fort Brown, in Texas, surrendered by Cap- 
tain Hill to the Texas Commissioners. 

April 12-13 Battle of Fort Sumter. Brilliant vic- 
tory gained by General Beauregard and the South Carolina 
troops. After thirty-four hours' bombardment, the fort sur- 
renders to the Confederate States. 

April 14 Evacuation of Fort Sumter by Major Ander- 
son and his command. 

April 14 Abraham Lincoln, President of the United 

States, issues a proclamation calling for 75,000 volunteers to 
put down the " Southern rebellion." 

April 15 Colonel Beeves, U. S. A., surrenders Fort 

Bliss, near El Paso, to Colonel J. W MeGriffin, the Texas 
Commissioner. 

April 16 Seizure of the Xorth Carolina forts and the 

Fayetteville arsenal by the State troops. 

April 17 Capture of the steamship Star of the West 

by Colonel Van Dorn, C. S. A. 

April 19 The Baltimore massacre. The citizens of 

Baltimore attack with missiles the Northern mercenaries pas- 
sing through their city en route for the South. The Massa- 
chusetts regiment fires on the people, and many are killed. 
Two mercenaries are also shot. Great excitement follows, 



90 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

and the Maryland people proceed to burn the railroad bridges 
and tear up the track. 

April 20 Capture of the Federal army at Indianola, 

Texas, by Colonel Van Porn, C. S. A. The Federal officers 
released on parole. 

April 20 Attempted destruction of Norfolk Navy-yard 

by the Federal authorities. The works set on fire and several 
ships scuttled and sunk. The Federal troops retreat to Fort- 
ress Monroe. The Navy-yard subsequently occupied by the 
Virginians. 

April 20 Harper's Ferry evacuated by the Federal 

troops under Lieutenant Jones, who attempts the destruction 
of the armory by fire. The place occupied by Virginia troops. 

April 28 Fort Smith, Arkansas, captured by the Ar- 
kansas troops under Colonel Solon Borland. 

May 9 The blockade of Virginia commenced. 

MaylO Baltimore occupied by a large body of Federal 

troops under General B. F. Butler. 

May 10 A body of 5,000 Federal volunteers, under 

Captain Lyon, U. S. A., surround the encampment of 800 
Missouri State troops, near St. Louis, and oblige them to sur- 
render. 

May 10 The St. Louis massacre. The German volun- 
teers, under Colonel Francis P Blair, Jr., wantonly fire upon 
the people in the streets of St. Louis, killing and wounding 
a large number. 

May 11 The St. Louis massacre: repetition of the ter- 
rible scenes of May 10. The defenceless people again shot 
down. Thirty-three citizens butchered in cold blood. 

May 11 The blockade of Charleston harbor commenced 

by the United States steamer Niagara. 

May 19, 20, 21 Attack on the Virginia batteries at 

Sewell's Point, near Norfolk, by the United States steamer 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 91 

31onticello, aided by the steamer Minnesota. The assailants 
driven off with loss. No one hurt on the Virginia side. 

May 24. '....Alexandria, Virginia, occupied by 5,000 Fed- 
eral troops, the Virginians having retreated. Killing of Col- 
onel Ellsworth by the heroic Jackson. 

May 25 Hampton, Va., near Fortress Monroe, taken 

by the Federal troops. Newport News occupied. 

May 27 New Orleans and Mobile blockaded. 

May 29 President Davis arrives in Richmond. 

May 31 Fight at Fairfax Court-House between a com- 
pany of United States cavalry and a Virginia company. The 
gallant Captain Marr killed; several Federal troops killed, 
wounded, and taken prisoners. 

June 1, 2. 3 Engagement at Aquia Creek, between 

the Virginia batteries and the United States steamers Wa- 
bash, Anacosta, and Thomas Freeborn. The enemy with- 
drew, greatly damaged. 

June 3 Battle of Phillippa, in Western Virginia. 

Colonel Kelly, commanding a body of Federal troops and 
Virginia tories, attacks an inferior force of Southerners at 
Phillippa, under Col. Porterfield, and routes them. Colonel 
Kelly severely wounded, and several on both sides reported 
killed. 

June 5 Fight at Pig's Point Battery, between the 

Confederate troops and the United States steamer Harriet 
Lane, resulting in the discomfiture of the enemy. The 
Harriet Lane badly hulled. 

June 10 Battle of Great Bethel, near Yorktown, Va. 

This splendid victory was gained by eleven hundred North 
Carolinians and Virginians, commanded by Colonel J. Bank- 
head Magruder, over four thousand five hundred troops, under 
Brigadier General Pierce. The Federal troops attacked the 
Southern entrenchments, and after a fight of four hours 



92 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

were driven back and pursued to Hampton. Southern loss, 
one man killed and seven wounded. Federal loss believed 
to be several hundred. They confess to thirty Tailed and 
one hundred wounded. 

June 12 Governor Jackson, of Missouri, issues a pro- 
clamation, calling the people of that State to arms. He 
commences to concentrate troops at Jefferson City, burning 
the bridges on the route to St. Louis and the East. 

June 15 Harper's Ferry evacuated by General Joseph 

B. Johnston and the Confederate troops. 

June 16 Skirmish at Vienna, Va., between Colonel 

Gregg's South Carolina regiment and the 5th Ohio regiment. 
The enemy routed, with the loss of several killed. General 
Robert Schenck, the Federal leader, unfortunately not among 
the number. This was represented as a trivial affair, but 
was important in the chain of events, and indicative of after 
results. 

June 17 Gen. Butler demanded 15,000 additional 

troops at Fortress Monroe. The Southerners burn seventy 
locomotives on the Baltimore and Ohio railroad. An order 
from Gov. Magoffin that no Tennessee troops shall occupy 
any portion of Kentucky. The thermometer at Alexandria 
105° in the shade. Wise moving opposite McClellan's ad- 
vance. Sawyer's cannon mounted at Rip Raps. 

June 18 Scott boasts of the evacuation of Harper's 

Ferry as in perfect accordance with his plans, and that no 
Southern movements can in the slightest degree affect his 
programme. Aquia Creek defenses increased. At St. 
Louis, the Federal soldiers fire on the people, killing seven 
and wounding a large number. The battle of Boonville, 
where Gov. Jackson was compelled to retire before Gen. 
Lyon. 

June 19 Andy Johnson spoke three hours at Lexing- 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 93 

ton, Ky. Frank Pierpont appointed Governor of Western 
Virginia. The Virginia ordinance passed 73 to 3, and a 
State seal ordered. 

June 20 Gen. Lyon occupies Boonville. The Federal 

force, 5000, at Vienna. Gen. McClellan and staff leave 
Cincinnati for Virginia. 

June 21 Southerners erecting masked batteries oppo- 
site Rip Raps. Rosseau has authority to raise two Kentucky 
regiments, with blank commissions in his hands. Surveyor 
Cotton orders that permits shall be obtained for freights over 
the Louisville and Nashville railroad. A battle between 
McDowell's division and Beauregard, at Vienna, anticipated 
— the main blow, with 45,000 men, to be struck from "Wash- 
ington, intending to effect a surprise. 

June 23 Mississippi Sound blockaded by Federal war- 
vessels. Coasting schooners fired on by the fleet : no damage 
done. 

June 24 Serious Bank riot in Milwaukie, Wis. Mili- 
tary ordered out, and fire on the people, killing nearly 100. 

June 25 Harper's Ferry evacuated by the Federals. 

June 28 Skirmish near Cumberland, Va., in which 

the Federals took to inglorious retreat. 

June 29 The jury, with regard to the late bloody 

tragedy in St. Louis, brought in a verdict that the shooting 
of citizens by the Federal troops was done without provoca- 
tion. 

July 1 Mouth of the Mississippi river blockaded by 

the Federal fleet. The city authorities of Baltimore arrested 
on charge of treason against the Federal Government. Mar- 
tial law proclaimed. 

July 2 Ship St. Nicholas taken possession of by Com. 

Hollins, of Confederate Navy. 

July 3 The Lincoln Cabinet decides a grand advance 



94 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

of the Federal army towards Richmond, Va. Fremont com- 
missioned as Major Greneral in the Federal army. 

July 5 Battle of Carthage, Mo., between the State 

troops, under command of Gov. Jackson, and the Federals, 
under Gen. Siegel. The battle was a bloody one ; Siegel's 
forces were nearly surrounded and cut to pieces. The Fed- 
eral loss, 700 killed and wounded ; Southern loss, 270 killed 

and wounded Federal forces, under Gen. Patterson, take 

possession of Martinsburg, Va. Patterson advances and at- 
tacks the Confederate forces, under command of Gen. John- 
ston. The Federals are defeated, with great slaughter, and 

forced back to Martinsburg A heavy skirmish occurred 

near Newport News, between a body of Federals and a Lou- 
isiana battalion, under command of Lieut. Col. Drew Col. 
Drew was killed in leading the attack. The Federals were 
forced to retreat, after suffering a loss of 50 killed and 
wounded. 

July 8 Gen. Johnston's army near Martinsburg was 

reinforced, and he prepares to move his forces to effect a 

junction with Gen. Beauregard, near Manassas General 

Lyon marching towards Boonville, Mo. ; he compels the peo- 
ple to take the oath of allegiance to the Federal Government, 
as he advances. 

July 10 McClellan marching on Beverly, Va. ; con- 
stant skirmishing occurring between the Federals and South- 
erners. 

July 11.... -..Rich Mountain fight, between a regiment of 
Virginians, under command of Col. Pegrim, and a large 
body of Federals. After a hard-fought battle, Col. Pegrim 
was forced to retreat before a greatly superior number. Vir- 
ginians lost 142 killed and wounded ; Federal loss, 110 killed 

and wounded Laurel Hill evacuated by Gen. Garnett and 

the Confederate forces. 



AND REPOSITORY OP USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 95 

July 12 A peace petition, gotten up by the citizens of 

New York City, is seized by the city marshal McClellan 

pursues G-en. Garnett, and attacks the rear of his retreating 
forces. Gen. Garnett, in covering the rear of his forces, was 
killed. The forces under McClellan numbered 20,000 men; 
Garnett's force was small. The main body of Garnett's 
forces made a safe retreat. 

July 17 Battle of Scary Creek, Kanawha Valley, be- 
tween a body of Federals, 2800 strong, and a body of Vir- 
ginians, (700,) under Gen. Wise. The Virginians achieved 
a signal victory over the Federals, and took many prisoners. 

Loss not known The Federal Grand Army, under the 

command of Gen. McDowell, advances in three divisions to- 
wards Manassas. 

July 18 Battle of Bull Run, Va. A great and de- 
cisive victory was achieved, by Gen. Beauregard, over the 
Federal forces. Federal loss, 450 killed and wounded; Con- 
federate loss, 20 killed and 65 wounded. First defeat for 

Grand Army Battle of Bull Creek, Va. The Grand 

Army makes another advance toward Bull Creek, with a 
force of 10,000 men, and attacks the Confederate forces, 
(7000,) under Gen. Bonham. After four hours hard fighting, 
the Federals were repulsed, with great slaughter. Federal 
loss, 245 killed and wounded; Confederate loss, 68 killed 
and wounded. 

July 20 Provisional Congress (3d session) of the Con- 
federate States met in Richmond, Va. 

July 21 Battle of Manassas, Va. — the largest and 

most severe battle ever fought on the American Continent. 
The battle began at 4 o'clock in the morning, and lasted 
until nearly 9 o'clock at night. The Federal forces, under 
command of Gen. McDowell, numbered 45,000 men. The 
Confederate army, under Gen. Beauregard, Gen. Johnston, 



96 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

and President Davis, numbered 27,900, but only 20,000 of 
the Confederates were actually engaged in the battle. The 
Federals suffered a great and signal defeat j their army made 
the most disgraceful and cowardly retreat that ever took 
place in the annals of war. Federal loss, 3500 killed and 
wounded, and 700 taken prisoners ; Confederate loss, 893 
killed, and 1300 wounded. 

July 22 J W Tompkins was shot dead, while cheering 

for Jeff. Davis, by a city officer of Louisville, Ky. 

July 24 Battle of Mesilla, Arizonia Territory. The 

Confederate forces, under Lieut. Col. Baylor, attacked a large 
body of the Federals at Fort Fillmore. After a desperate 
fight, the Federals were severely defeated, and compelled to 
evacuate the Fort. Federal loss, 32 killed and 500 taken 
prisoners. 

July 25 Federal army retreats to Alexandria and 

Washington City Gen. McClellan takes command of the 

remnant of the Grand Army at Washington. 

July 30 Gen. Pillow occupies New Madrid, Mo. The 

Confederate army concentrating in Southern Missouri. 

August 3 Skirmish near Cassville, Mo. A body of 75 

Southrons, after a sharp contest, defeated and routed a de- 
tachment of 123 Federals The Federal war-steamer, 

Dart, made an attempt to bombard the city of Galveston, 
Texas. The attack was unsuccessful ; the steamer was com- 
pelled to retire The Federal forces, under command of 

Major Lynde, desert all the Federal forts in Arizonia, after 
destroying property and provisions. The forts taken pos- 
session of by Lieut. Col. Baylor, of the Confederate Army. 

August 6 Fight at Dug Springs, Mo. An action took 

place to-day, between the Southerners, under Gen. McCulloch, 
and the Federals, under Gen. Lyon. The fight was brought 
on by McCulloch endeavoring to draw out Gen. Lyon in open 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 97 

field. The Federals lost 40 killed and wounded ; Confederate 
loss, 43 killed and wounded. 

August 8 The Southerners erecting batteries on the 

Potomac river, at Aquia Creek Fight at Rich Spring, 

Western Virginia. Another victory was achieved to-day. 
The Southerners, under Gen. Lee, encountered a body of 
the enemy, under Gen. Rosencranz, which resulted in the 
repulse and defeat of the Federals, who lost 50 killed and 
wounded. Confederate loss very light. 

August 10 Battle at Oak Hill, near Springfield, Mo. 

The Federal forces, under Gens. Lyon and Siegel, attack the 
Southerners, under Gen. McCulloch. After a desperate 
fight, the Federals were completely routed, and suffered a se- 
vere defeat in the death of Gen. Lyon. Federal loss, 2000 
killed and wounded ; Confederate loss, 365 killed, and 417 
wounded. The Confederate forces amounted to 12,000 men ; 
the Federal forces amounted to 10,000. The battle was 
fought under great disadvantages to the Southerners, only 
one-half of whom were armed Fight at Edina, Mo., be- 
tween a body of Southerners and the Home Guards. The 
latter were completely routed. Loss, 50 killed and wounded, 

on each side The newspaper-office of the Democratic 

Standard, at Concord, N. H., demolished by a mob, for re- 
flecting on the cowardice of the returning three-months' 
volunteers. 

August 12 Skirmish at Leesburg, Ya. A large force 

of Federals crossed the Potomac on a marauding expedition. 
The Southerners attacked the expedition, and compelled the 
Federals to make a cowardly retreat. 

August 16 The Grand Jury of the Federal District of 

New York, presented the following newspapers, for express- 
ing sympathy with the Southern cause : Journal of Com- 
merce, New York Neios, Bay-Booh, Freeman's Journal, and 
Brooklyn Eagle. 



98 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

August 17 Lincoln's proclamation forbidding trade and 

travel with the seceding States. 

August 20 Gen. Jeff. Thompson occupies Commerce, 

Missouri, and erects batteries on the river. Steamers City of 
Alton and Hannibal City fired on and sunk by the Confede- 
rate batteries; 400 Federals taken prisoners. Riot in Phila- 
delphia. The newspaper office of the Pennsylvania Sentinel 
destroyed by the mob, for advocating a peace policy. Jeffer- 
sonian printing-office destroyed by the mob. A. S. Kimbal, 
editor of the Essex County Democrat, is tarred and feathered 
for opposing the war policy of the North. The Louisville 
Courier suppressed by Federal authority for espousing the 
cause of the South. 

August 21 Fightat Charleston, Missouri; Confederates 

defeated with a small loss. 

August 25 Commencement of the Reign of Terror 

throughout the Northern States. Men and women arrested 
and imprisoned for sympathizing with the Southern cause. 
Newspapers friendly to the South suppressed by order of the 
Federal Government. Citizens compelled to take the oath 
of allegiance to the Federal Government. 

August 26 Battle of Cross-Lanes, Western Virginia. 

The Confederate forces, under General Floyd, attacked and 
surrounded a large body of Federals. The Federals were 
repulsed and defeated after a severe fight ; losses not known. 

August 31 Capture of Fort Hatteras by the Federal 

fleet under General Butler ; after a gallant defence, Captain 
Barron, who commanded the forts, had to surrender to an 
overwhelming force of the enemy. General Butler's force 
amounted to eight war frigates and several smaller vessels, 
manned by 4,000 men. Captain Barron had only a defen- 
sive force of 830 men. 

August 31 Gen. Fremont, commander of the Federal 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 99 

forces in St. Louis, issues his infamous proclamation, order- 
ing all persons found in arms against the Federal Govern- 
ment, to be shot, and also declaring the slaves of persons 
sympathizing with the Southern cause, to be manumitted. 

September 4 Fight at Fort Scott, Mo. The Confed- 
erate force, under Gen. Price, and the Federals, under Lane 
and Montgomery; a severe battle was fought, which resulted 
in a fine victory for the Southerners. Losses not known. 

September 5 Gov. 31agofhn proclaims the neutrality 

of Kentucky. 

September 6 Battle of Shuter's Hill. The Confede- 
rate forces made a successful attack on Shuter's Hill; the 
Federal loss was 380 killed and wounded, and 300 taken 
prisoners; Confederate loss, 120 killed and wounded. 

September 6 Engagement at Hickman, Ky., between 

two Federal gun-boats, and one Confederate steamer. After 
firing several ineffectual shots, the Federals were forced to 
retire. 

September 7 The seizure and occupation of Paducah, 

Ky., by the Federals under Gen. Grant. He fortifies the city. 

September S The occupation of Columbus, Kentucky, 

by the Confederate forces, under Generals Polk and Pillow. 

September 10 The Confederate forces take possession 

of Munson s Hill, Ya. Skirmishes constantly occuring in 
the neighborhood of Arlington Heights, between Federals 
and Southerners. 

September 10 Fight at Cafnifax Ferry, Western, Ya. 

The Federal forces, under Gen. Rosencrans, attacked a detach- 
ment of Gen. Floyd's forces. After a severe and brisk 
engagement, which lasted for several hours, Gen. Floyd fell 
back. 

September 12 The Dubuque (Iowa) Herald suppressed 

for being friendly to the cause of the South. ■_ 



100 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

September 18 Battle and siege of Lexington, Mo. 

The Confederate forces, under G-en. Price, attacked the city 
of Lexington, which was in possession of the Federals, under 
Col. Mulligan ; the siege lasted three days, when the Fede- 
rals were forced to surrender. Federal loss, 190 killed, 163 ' 
wounded, and 2,500 taken prisoners. Confederate loss, 145 
killed and wounded. 

September 21 Fight at Barboursville, Ky., between a 

body of 900 Confederates and 1,700 Federals. The Federal 
force suffered severely, and were forced to retreat. 

September 25 Battle of La Mosa, Arizona Territory. 

A splendid victory was gained by the Southerners at La 
Mosa. The Federals were driven from the country. Losses 
not known. 

October 2 The Confederate forces, under Gen. Zolli- 

coffer, take possession of Manchester, Kentucky. 

October 3 Battle of Green-Brier Kiver, Virginia. A 

splendid victory was gained by the Confederates. The Fede- 
rals, under Gen. Reynolds, attacked the Confederate forces, 
under Gen. Jackson. After a close fight, the enemy fell back 
repulsed with a heavy loss. 

October 4 The Potomac river effectually blockaded by 

the Confederates. 

October 8 Expedition to Chicamahcomico Creek, coast 

of North Carolina. Three Confederate steamers, under com- 
mand of Commodore Lynch, made a successful attack on the 
Federal defences, and captured one Federal steamer, and took 
a large quantity of arms and ammunition. 

October 8 Fight on Santa Rosa Island, Gulf of 

Mexico. A small body of Confederates, under the com- 
mand of General Anderson, planned and executed a suc- 
cessful attack on a large encampment of Federal "roughs," 
under the notorious " Billy Wilson." The Federals were 
completely routed, and cut to pieces. 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 101 

October 12 Expedition to the mouth of the Mississippi 

River. Commodore Hollins, of the Confederate Navy, ac- 
complished a splendid victory, by attacking the Federal 
blockading fleet, at the head of the Passes, sinking one Fed- 
eral steamer, and driving the remainder of the fleet out of 
the river. 

October 16 Fight at Bolivar, near Harper's Ferry. 

Colonel Ashby, with a small body of Virginians, succeeded 
in repelling an attack of the Federals, in large force. 

October 21 Battle at Leesburg, Virginia. The Con- 
federate forces, under command of General Lee, attacked the 
Federals, under General Baker. The Federals were severely 
defeated, with great loss. General Baker was killed, and 
immense numbers of the Federals were drowned in retreat- 
ing across the Potomac River. Federal loss, 732 killed and 
wounded, and 659 taken prisoners; Confederate loss, 147 
killed and wounded. 

October 22 Fight in Carroll county, Missouri. A 

large body of Federals made an attack on a small force of 
Confederates. The Federals were severely repulsed. 

October 24 Fight at Romney, Western Virginia. The 

Federal forces, under General Kelly, made an attack on the 
Confederate defences at Romney. The Federals were forced 
to retire several times, and finally returned with a superior 
force. The Confederate forces, under Colonel McDonald, 
were compelled to withdraw from their defences. Losses 
unknown. 

October 24 Fight at Rock Castle Ford, Tennessee. 

The Confederate forces, under General Zollicoffer, attacked 
the Federals, and drove them from their entrenchments. 
Federal loss not known; Confederate loss, 30 killed and 
wounded. 

October 29 Fight at Fredericktown, Missouri. The 



102 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

Confederate forces, under General Jeff. Thompson, were at- 
tacked by a large force of Federals. The Confederates gal- 
lantly defended their positions for several hours, when they 
were forced to retire before a superior force. 

October 29 The great Federal armada sails for the 

Southern coast. 

0ctober 29 Fight on the Centreville road, near Lees- 
burg. A Mississippi regiment, under Colonel Barksdale, 
encountered a large body of Federals; after a spirited fight, 
the Federals were badly repulsed. 

November 2 Skirmish near Springfield, Missouri. A 

Federal force of mounted men attacked a body of Confed- 
erate cavalry; after a sharp encounter, the Federals were 
completely routed, with a severe loss. 

November 5 Naval attack on Port Eoyal. Fifteen war 

vessels, from the Federal armada, attacked Forts Walker and 
Bay Point. The Confederate forces, after gallantly defend 
ing the forts, were forced to evacuate their positions before 
a greatly overwhelming force. 

November? Battle of Belmont, Missouri, one of the 

hardest fought battles of the present war. The Federal 
forces, under Generals McClernand and Bowlin, attacked the 
Confederates, under General Pillow and General Polk. 
After a hard fought battle, the Federals were defeated, with 
heavy losses. Federal loss, 695 killed and wounded / Con- 
federate loss, 465 killed and wounded, and 117 missing. 

November 8 Battle of Pike ville, Kentucky. The Fed- 
eral forces, under General Nelson, attacked the Confederates, 
under Colonel Williams. After a close fight, the Federals 
were repulsed, with a heavy loss Mason and Slidell, Con- 
federate States Ministers, arrested on the high seas, by 
Lieut. Wilkes, of the Federal Navy. 

November 10 Fight at Guyandotte, Va. Kesulted in 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 103 

a complete victory for the Southerners. The Federal forces 

were surrounded and cut to pieces Several skirmishes 

occurred at Bristol, Tenn., between the Union men and the 
Southerners. The Union men were completely routed, and 
great numbers of them captured. 

November 13 The Great Northern Expedition ("The 

Wildcat Brigade,") to the Cumberland Gap, meets with a 
signal failure. The expedition, after accomplishing nearly 
one-half of their journey, took fright, when commenced a 
retreat which ended in a disgraceful stampede. 

November 14 Fight at McCoy's Mill, Western Vir- 
ginia, between the Federal forces, under Gen. Benham, and 
a detached force of Gen. Floyd's Brigade. The Federals 
had every advantage, in numbers, artillery, and position. 
The Confederates had no artillery. After a gallant fight, 
the Confederates were compelled to fall back. The most se- 
rious loss to the Confederates was in the death of Col. 
Croghan. 

November 18 Skirmish at Fairfax Court House. A 

heavy skirmish took place at Fairfax Court House, between 
a large force of Yankees and a detachment of Virginians. 
The Yankees were driven from the field, after losing 10 men 

killed, and 8 wounded Fight at Jacksonboro', Tennessee 

Biver. Two Federal gun-boats attacked the Confederate 
battery. After a brisk engagement, the boats withdrew; 
quite a number of the enemy were killed, and one boat dis- 
abled A force of Federals, 8000 strong, invades and 

takes possession of Accomac county, Eastern Virginia. The 
Confederate forces, being small, and nearly without arms and 
ammunition, were compelled to give way to an overwhelming 

force Skirmish near Falls Church, Va., between advanced 

forces of the Federals and Southerners. A brisk fight took 
place, which ended in a total rout of- the Federals. 



104 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

November 20 Kentucky prepares to seek admission 

into the Confederate States. Provisional Constitution 
formed ; G. W Johnson elected Governor. 

November 22 Fight at Pensacola, Fla. The Federals in 

command at Fort Pickens opened their batteries on two small 
Confederate steamers in the bay. Gen. Bragg, of the Con- 
federate forces, promptly replied by opening his batteries. 
A general engagement commenced between the Federals and 
Confederates. Incessant firing was kept up by both parties 
for nearly two days, when the Federal batteries suddenly 
ceased firing. Little or no damage was sustained by the 
Confederate forts or batteries. The Federals must have suf- 
fered very seriously, as they have not since been able to renew 
their unfinished attack. The Confederate loss was 16 killed 
and wounded. 

November 26 Missouri admitted into the Confederacy. 

November 30 Crisis at hand. Reasons now exist 

which go to show that the last remnants of the old Federal 
Union are preparing their final and most desperate efforts, to 
crush out of existence our young giant Confederacy. The 
Federal Grand Army, under Gen. McClellan, is preparing 
for its second onward march toward Manassas. The long 
talked of expedition down the Mississippi river is nearly 
ready to start. Two new naval expeditions are about starting 
for the Southern coast. Another attack is looked for at Co- 
lumbus, Ky. A heavy force is expected to attack Bowling 
Green, Ky. All of the above contemplated raids are the 
last death-throes of the expiring enemy of the South. 



AND REPOSITORY OP USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 105 



THE BATTLE OF MANASSAS. 



The Muse of History, as she writes the record of the past 
month, will incorporate therein one chapter, devoted to 
American Annals, more intensely interesting in its revela- 
tions, than any that has ever yet chronicled the changeful 
doom of empire. That glowing chapter might be fitly 
headed, after the picturesque fashion of olden illuminated 
titles, 

"THE BATTLE OF MANASSAS," 

in letters of crimson and gold, as indicative, at once, of the 
gory fate of Northern vandalism, and the brilliant blazonry 
of Southern prowess, on the eventful 21st. 

As our present recital of facts will quite probably be re- 
ferred to by the future historiographer of our noble Confed- 
eracy, we must not omit to mention the very important and 
successful engagement of Bull Run, on the 18th July, which 
was so inspiriting a prelude to the splendid achievement of 
Stone Bridge ; and in order that the (perhaps unborn) 
explorer among the now formative archives of our separate 
Nationality may have accurate data upon which to proceed, 
it may not be amiss to specify the distinct localities, which 
will, for all time to come, invest Prince William county with 
an interest not surpassed, if equaled, by that of any battle- 
field of the first American Revolution. 

Bull Run constitutes the northern boundary of that county, 
which it divides from Fairfax ; and on its now classic banks, 
about three miles to the northwest of the junction of the 
Manassas Gap with the Orange and Alexandria P^ailroad, was 
fought the gallant action of the 18th July; in which the 



106 

Confederate troops, under the intrepid Beauregard, in a fierce 
contest which lasted several hours, and extended throughout 
the length of our line, three times triumphantly repulsed the 
enemy, who had advanced in full force from Fairfax Court 
House and attempted to cross the stream, but were com- 
pelled, at last, to retreat in great confusion. 

About four miles from this memorable spot, and, of course, 
one mile from the junction of the two railroads above men- 
tioned, is Manassas, recently a mere station on the latter 
named road, but which, since its occupation by the Confed- 
erate troops, has almost grown into the proportions of a village; 
while its name has become hallowed in the affections of eight 
million Southrons, in whose ears the exultant shouts of an 
unparalleled victory yet ring; although it must be confessed, 
with strict regard to historic truth, that the event we are 
now recording, might be more appropriately termed the 
battle of Stone Bridge, where was posted the main body of 
the Confederate Army; the line, however, extending between 
six and seven miles up and down the Run, and minor engage- 
ments occurring at various fords. 

General Joseph E. Johnston, Commander of the army of 
the Shenandoah, who had been watching, with a lynx's eye, 
the movements of the cowardly Patterson, had no sooner 
ascertained the night retreat of the latter from the vicinity 
of Winchester across the Potomac, with the rightly conjec- 
tured design of uniting his forces with those of McDowell, 
than he hastened his own march from Winchester, with four 
thousand of his division, to Manassas Junction, to reinforce 
General Beauregard. Leaving the remainder of his troops, 
except a sufficient force to hold the town, to join him on the 
following day, he reached the Junction on Friday the 19th, 
and immediately assumed chief command, as he was entitled 
to do by superior rank ; although, with the amiable modesty 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 107 

characteristic of the man. he assured General Beauregard 
thai his plans, winch had been admirably devised and well 
matured, would, in the main, be followed. 

Early in the morning of the ever-memorable 21st, the 
advancing column of the '-Grand Army" of the Xorth, com- 
prising not only twenty-five thousand volunteers, but also all 
the regulars east of the Bocky Mountains, to the number of 
ten thousand, collected since February last in the city of 
"Washington, from Jefferson Barracks, from .St. Louis, and 
from Fortress Monroe, together with a body of marines, was 
brought in one precipitate charge upon our left flank, which, 
under command of General Johnston in person, was posted 
at the Stone Bridge and protected by almost impregnable 
works. This distinguished chieftain was not to be deceived 
by the numerous active feints against the right wing, but, at 
once penetrating the flanking design of the foe, completely 
frustrated the movement by a bold march from his stron°- 
position at the Bridge directly to the front, where he met, in 
open field and fair encounter, the heavy odds of the invading 
forces. Against this fearful odds of nearly double his own 
numbers, did he make good his determined resistance for 
seven well-fought hours, and maintained his advanced posi- 
tion, although his loss of men was terrific. Seizing the 
colors of a Georgia regiment, the hero of Manassas rallied 
them to the charge, throwing himself into the very thickest 
of the fight. Opportunely, the centre of the column, under 
General Beauregard, who chivalrously led the Hampton 
Legion into action - , after the gallant Colonel Hampton had 
been severely wounded in, the eye, and Lieut. Col. Johnson 
had been killed, advanced to the support of General John- 
ston's division. The tide of battle was at length turned in 
our favor by the arrival on the ground — as if in Providential 
answer to the wishful exclamation of General Johnston to 



108 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

General Cocke, at this critical juncture, "0, for four regi- 
ments I" — of the four thousand men he" had left in Win- 
chester. 

General Kirby Smith, who was in command of the rein- 
forcement, heard the din of battle above the clatter of the 
cars on the Manassas Gap railroad, over which he was hur- 
rying to the scene of conflict ; and stopping the train, 
marched his eager troops at "double-quick" across the 
fields, and came into the action at the precise spot where his . 
aid was most needed, their arrival at that point of the 
field was wholly unexpected, and at first they were supposed 
to be a portion of the Northern reserve; but their prompt 
alignment with the almost exhausted division of General 
Johnston speedily dissipating the error, the now hurried col- 
umns of the enemy gave way, and a sudden panic seized 
them, which rendered their defeat a perfect rout. 

Such a battle has never been waged upon the American 
continent ; nor do we think it likely another ever will be, at 
least during the present war. Say what they may, in exten- 
uation of their disgraceful flight before the magnificent body 
of cavalry commanded, in the galling pursuit, by Lieut. Col. 
Stuart, and joined by President Davis, who had barely time 
to gallop to the field from the train that bore him to its 
vicinage, the proverbial phrase, "a Waterloo defeat," but 
illy serves to express the total discomfiture of the " Grand 
Army" on the really red-letter day, July 21, 1861. To say 
It was panic-stricken — routed — demoralized — -but half con- 
veys an idea of that long, toilsome, phrensied stampede to- 
wards Washington, among the mined walls of whose dese- 
crated Capitol, Presidential mansion, and departmental offices, 
hundreds of the horrified fugitives sought refuge from the 
valorous foe, whose nearing footfall they imagined was heard, 
like the clattering tramp of the " Pale Horse and his Rider," 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 109 

close upon their rear ; while the less agile, or the more un- 
fortunate wounded, were crushed down among the mass of 
train-wagons, gun-carriages, well-munitioned caissons, sump- 
tuous ambulances, and spectators' vehicles, all either driven 
with loosened reins and cracking whips, by terrified Jehus, 
or deserted by their former occupants and teamsters to the 
greed of the captors ; the roadways and footpaths — nay, the 
trampled plains and wooded hills being strewn for miles with 
cast-away arms, cartridge-boxes, canteens, haversacks, caps, 
knapsacks, over-coats, blankets, etc.; but the sight most 
piteous of all, was the heaps of mangled dead, apparently 
straining their glazed eyes to catch the farewell beams of the 
setting Sabbath sun ; and the most appalling sounds that 
voiced the ruin of that fatal day, were the gurgling prayers 
of the dying for a single draught of water. 

Is it too much to hazard the belief, that, after such havoo 
made in an army numbering over 90,000, of whom 35,000 were 
at one time in the engagement, by a force not exceeding 
50,000, of whom not more than 15,000 participated in the 
brilliant action, another such battle will hardly ever again 
lend thrilling interest to the pages of American history? 
France, it is true, on the field of Waterloo, lost the day and 
the prestige of empire ; but even then her Marshals main- 
tained the dignity of their rank, and her veteran soldiery the 
honor of their military character; but on the disastrous 
Plains of Manassas, officers and privates, regulars and volun- 
teers, forgot alike discipline and chivalry, and gave them- 
selves over, as with a lust of ignominy, to a demoralization 
almost utterly beyond the power of military redemption ; their 
vaunted stripes and stars, once the honored flag of the brave, 
now trailed in the dust beneath the feet of their victors, or 
raised in the blood-tainted breeze only to signal the flight of 
abject fear. 



110 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

While recording the heroic deeds of other chieftains, we 
must not neglect the name of General Jackson, who, with 
indomitable courage, for three mortal hours, sustained the 
deadly assaults of the enemy, and thus proved one of the 
main agents in achieving the triumph of our arms. Although 
narrators of the startling events we are recounting studiously 
avoid, or carelessly omit, special mention of his invincible 
prowess, the late lamented General Bee, who fell at the head 
of his column, mortally wounded, just as victory was about 
to crown the lofty emprise of the Confederates, cordially ac- 
knowledged his gallant bearing, even at the very instant of 
the charge which cost him his own valuable life. A moment 
before, General Bee had been well-nigh overwhelmed by su- 
perior numbers, who kept up a fire that swept everything 
in its range ; and when his brigade was reduced to a mere 
handful, every field officer being either killed or disabled, he 
approached General Jackson with the pathetic exclamation, 
" General, they are beating us back ;" to which the latter 
promptly replied, " Sir, we'll give them the bayonet." Gen- 
eral Bee immediately rallied his overtasked troops to the 
charge, with the words, " There is Jackson standing like a 
stone wall. Let us determine to die here, and we will con- 
quer. Follow me !" Nor was the noble South Carolinian 
the only leader on that field of carnage and of fame, who 
pointed to the bright example of General Jackson as an in- 
centive to further deeds of bravery; and it is but sheer jus- 
tice to the patriot and the hero, that his illustrious name 
should be registered with the annals of that glorious day. 

While we mourn the loss of from three to four hundred 
killed, and assiduously apply all our therapeutic resourses for 
the relief of the six or seven hundred of our wounded, it was 
befitting the occasion — the fearful, but successful, birth- 
struggle of our new Nationality — that the Confederate Con- 



AND REPOSITORY OP USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. Ill 

gress, at the pious suggestion of Secretary Memminger, 
should recommend the observance of the succeeding Sab- 
bath as a season of thanksgiving and praise to Almighty God,, 
for the interposition of His Providence in our behalf. Not 
all the wise strategy of our skillful commanders, nor the 
daring courage and unflinching fortitude of our patriotic sol- 
diery, could have saved us from the ruin of defeat by the 
overwhelming array, disciplined troops, formidable batteries, 
and well-arranged tactics of the "Grand Army," which left 
between seven and eight thousand of its slain upon the field, 
and counts among its wounded and missing near ten thousand 
more — without the special benison of the Supreme Ruler of 
the Universe upon our self-defensive efforts. With His pro- 
tection afforded us, not all the satanic sophistry of Seward's 
statesmanship — not all the flagrant falsehoods of Lincoln's 
lying messages — hot all the studied programmes of Scott's 
traitorous experience — not all the batteries and bayonets, 
balls and bombs, of regulars or volunteers, marines or militia, 
though hurtling never so thick, swift, and near, could scare 
or scatter our valiant ranks : nay, nor handcuffs, nor halters — 
woe betide the baseness and barbarity that necessitate their 
mention in this connection ! — deprive us of liberty or life. 
To God, therefore, be all the glory that is written in the 
blood of Manassas ! 



APPENDIX 



TO THE 



Confederate States Almanac. 



ABOLITIONISM FROM 17S7 TO 1861: 



A COMPENDIUM OF HISTORICAL FACTS, SHOWING 



% \t €mm tjjat \nk to to a liswMton ai i\t Itwra. 



STATE SOVEREIGNTY, 



THE RIGHT OF SECESSION. 



TO WHICH IS ADDED THE FINANCIAL AND COMMERCIAL INDEPEND- 
ENCE OF THE CONFEDERATE STATES. 



By A. O. P. NICHOLSON, Esq.. 



COMPILED AND PUBLISHED BY H. C. CLARKE, 

VICKSBURG, MISSISSIPPI. 



APPENDIX. 



POLITICAL REVIEW OF THE OLD UNION- 

The movement that threw off the rule of the mother 
country, began in the New England Colonies. These were 
settled by those Puritans who effected the Revolution of 
1620, and decapitated Charles I. The Southern Colonies 
were occupied by a more loyal class. To the noble family of 
Baltimore was granted, by Royal Charter, the province of 
Maryland. To other staunch adherents of the crown were 
accorded grants and privileges in Virginia, North and South 
Carolina, and Georgia. 

With antecedents so opposite, both North and South joined 
heartily in the War of Independence, making equal sacri- 
fices and dividing fairly its triumphs. In 1781, the strug- 
gling States formed a Confederation, and essayed self-govern- 
ment. The written Charter of 1789 followed the form and 
usages of the British Constitution. Supreme power was 
divided between the executive and legislative branches ; but 
all were elective. The executive power was vested in one 
person for a term of four years, with special duties assigned. 
The Legislature was divided, as in England, into two Houses, 
with separate prerogatives. All power not positively dele- 
gated to this Federal Government was reserved to the States. 

George Washington was the first Federal magistrate, chosen 
from a list of twelve candidates. 

Up to this period, the politicians of the country had, first, 
contended in a body against the supremacy of the mother 

115 



116 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

country j and, next, had united their energies in the struc- 
ture of a Republican Constitution. 

During President Washington's term, they divided into 
two hostile parties, each striving for office through the pro- 
fession of opposite principles. The New England States, led 
by John Adams, advocated the power of the Federal Govern- 
ment, even to straining the Constitution. This was the Fed- 
eral party. The Southern States, led by Thomas Jefferson, 
maintained State rights against Federal encroachment. This 
was the Democratic party. 

In 1797, John Adams, of Massachusetts, was elected Pres- 
ident of the Confederacy. During his term, the Alien* and 
Seditionf laws were passed by the Federal Congress. These 
enactments were opposed by the statesmen of the South, 
since, in their opinion, they invested the Executive with 
powers not conferred by the Constitution and inimical to 
popular rights. The creation of a National Bank was also a 
subject of keen controversy. The public men of the North 
sustained it with energy, while those of the South opposed 
it as unconstitutional and of doubtful expediency. 

In 1801, Thomas Jefferson, of Virginia, was elected Pres- 
ident. During this term, the New England States displayed 
a bitter animosity to the South, which arose, chiefly, from the 
South having put a limit to the slave-trade, in which these 
States were profitably engaged. When, therefore, President 
Jefferson proposed the purchase of Louisiana from France, 
the Eastern States violently resisted, because it increased the 

* By the Alien law, June, 1800, the President might order all such 
aliens as he deemed dangerous to quit the country, on pain of three 
years' imprisonment and civil disability. 

f By the Sedition law, any person who should libel the President, 
or either House of Congress, should be fined $2,000, and be impri- 
soned for two years. 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 117 

territory and power of the South. Congress empowered the 
purchase, April, 1803. 

In 1805, Thomas Jefferson was reelected to the Presi- 
dency. His second term was troubled by the war between 
England and France. The Berlin and Milan decrees of Napo- 
leon, and the Orders in Council of the British Government, 
equally assailed American interests. Our vessels, bound either 
to English or French ports, incurred capture and confiscation. 
This left but one alternative, either to abandon our trade 
with Europe, or go to war to protect it. To escape the latter, 
President Jefferson recommended an Embargo Act, to put a 
temporary stop to all our foreign trade. This was vehemently 
opposed by the New England States, because their interests, 
being chiefly commercial, were seriously damaged. The 
Embargo Act was passed by Congress in December, 1807 ; 
whereupon the Eastern States threatened to secede from the 
Union and form a Northern Confederacy. 

In 1809, James Madison, of Virginia, was elected Presi- 
dent. Soon after his accession, March, 1809, the Embargo 
Act was repealed, to appease the New England States; and 
a less stringent law, the Non-intercourse Act, was passed by 
Congress, May, 1809, which prohibited trade with England 
and France. New England, however, carried on an indirect 
trade with Europe, through Canada. In spite of all these 
precautions by the Government, our interests and dignity 
were incessantly outraged by England. Finally, the indig- 
nation of the country compelled Congress to declare war, 
May, 1812. 

In 1813, James Madison was reelected President. During 
the war, the Government was supported by direct taxes and 
requisitions upon the States; but the New England States 
refused, for the most part, to contribute.* The war closed, 

* Niles' Register. 



118 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

January, 1815. To resuscitate the Federal treasury, a new 
financial policy was inaugurated. A tariff of high duties 
was passed by Congress, April, 1816. New England advo- 
cated this law, because, during the war, she had transferred 
her capital from commerce to manufactures, for which she 
desired protection. The South was injured by the tariff, but 
she supported it from patriotic motives. John C. Calhoun, 
of South Carolina, went so far as to introduce a minimum 
rate for ad valorem duties, that is, a rate below which the 
duties should not fall. A new National Bank act was also 
passed, April, 1816; the old one having expired in 1811. 

In 1817, James Monroe, of Virginia, was elected Presi- 
dent. During this term, the interests of the country pros- 
pered. No struggle occurred between the politicians of New 
England and the South, till 1820, when Missouri applied for 
admission into the Union as a Slave State. The Eastern 
States opposed it violently, on the ground of extending 
slavery. The Union was in danger of dissolution, when, 
finally, Missouri was admitted by Congress as a Slave State, 
on the compromise that thereafter no Slave States should be 
created north of 36° 30' parallel of latitude. 

In 1821, James Monroe was reelected President. During 
this term, a new conflict arose between the politicians of New 
England and thof-e of the South, on the subject of the Tariff 
policy inaugurated at the peace. New England demanded 
more protection for her manufactures. This the South op- 
posed, on the ground that her manufactures had protection 
enough, and next, because an increase of the Tariff was se- 
riously detrimental to the interests of the South. 

In 1825, John Quincy Adams, of Massachusetts, was 
elected President.* During this term, a heated contest was 

* This election was made by the House of Representatives, as pro- 
vided in the Constitution, in default of an election by the people. 



AND REPOSITORY CF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 119 

carried on between New England and the South, on the 
Tariff policy. In 1828, a new act was passed by Congress, 
which raised the duties to an almost prohibitory standard. 
The average was 40 per cent, on imports. The South de- 
signated this act as the " Black Tariff. 

In 1829, Andrew Jackson, of Tennessee, became Presi- 
dent. During this term, the extreme Tariff policy of New 
England led to violent remonstrance in South Carolina, 
whose interests were seriously injured. She alleged that a 
policy to enrich one section of the country at the expense of 
another was unjust and unconstitutional. She threatened to 
resist this policy by force. A compromise was effected, 
March, 1833, by which the obnoxious Tariff was modified by 
Congress. 

In 1833, Andrew Jackson was reelected President. 
During this term, an acrimonious struggle was carried on 
between the politicians of the North* and South, on the Na- 
tional Bank, created at the peace. The former maintained 
it was necessary to their trade and commerce; the latter, 
while denying its constitutionality and expediency, also 
avowed their fears of its becoming a political machine, that 
might, in the hands of unscrupulous politicians, do much 
harm. The charter was allowed to expire in 1836. A policy 
known under the name of " Internal Improvements," was 
also discussed in this term. It had the support of the 
North, but the South opposed it, as favoring one section at 
the cost of the others. 

In 1837, Martin Van Buren, of New York, was elected 
President. During this term, great financial disorder pre- 
vailed in the country. The Northern politicians proposed, 
as a panacea, a new National Bank, a higher Tariff, and a 

* The Northern politicians dropped the title of "Federalist" in 
1824, and assumed that of "Whig" in 1828. 



120 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

Bankrupt Law. The South opposed them all, as unnecessary 
and sectional in their tendency. 

In 1841, William Henry Harrison, of Ohio, was elected 
President. He died soon after his accession to office. The 
Presidency was then administered by the Vice-President, 
John Tyler, of Virginia, as provided by the Constitution. 
During this term, Northern policy mostly prevailed. The 
Tariff was augmented, September, 1841, and August, 1842. 
A Bankrupt Law was passed, August, 1841.* A law was 
carried through Congress, July, 1841, dividing the public 
domain among the respective States, in proportion to their 
population. The effect of this was favorable to the manu- 
facturing States of New England; for, by cutting off from 
the Federal treasury the receipts from the public lands, it 
made a higher Tariff imperative, to insure a sufficient reve- 
nue. The new bank charter failed. At the end of eighteen 
months, the Bankrupt Act was repealed, 1843. A new 
Slave State, Texas, was admitted to the Union, March 3, 

1845. The act for dividing the public lands was repealed, 
January, 1842, as it was found necessary, to retain them as 
security for Federal loans. 

In 1845, James K. Polk, of Tennessee, was inaugurated 
President. During his term, the Tariff, which was pressing 
heavily on the interests of the South, was modified, July, 

1846. The President, in a special message to Congress, 
May, 1846, announced that the Government of Mexico had 
committed an act of war against the Confederacy. On this 
occasion, all sections of the country, North and South and 
West, united in declaring war against Mexico. The war 
closed, February, 1848. The treaty of Gaudalupe-Hidalgo, 

* By this act, private debts to the amount of $440,000,000, (£88,- 
000,000) were cancelled. 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 121 

•which followed, ceded California and New Mexico to the 
United States. 

In 1849, Zachary Taylor, of Mississippi, became Presi- 
dent. During this term, the old issues between the politi- 
cians of the North and South were abandoned, to wit : the 
Tariff policy, a National Bank, a system of Internal Im- 
provements, a Division of the Public Lands. The recent 
acquisitions of territory, however, afforded the public men 
of both sections a fertile field of discussion. The North 
contended against admitting slavery into the new territory. 
The South declared that its right to. joint occupation was 
incontestible, both in law and equity, and proposed that the 
compromise of 1820 should be renewed, by extending the 
Missouri line of 36° 30' to the Pacific Ocean. This the 
politicians of the North refused. The controversy became 
so violent, that a separation of the North and South seemed 
imminent. A compromise, however, took place in 1850, 
which stopped the discussion, but did not settle the main 
point in dispute, namely : the right of the South to joint 
occupation of all new territory. 

In 1853, Franklin Pierce, of New Hampshire, became 
President. During this term, the discussion on slavery was 
renewed. A portion of western territory, named Nebraska, 
was divided into two territories. One of these was called 
Kansas, and the other Nebraska. The compromise line of 
36° 30' ran to the south of these territories, which would 
have given Kansas as well as Nebraska, the largest, to the 
North. On the proposition of the Senator from Illinois, 
Stephen A. Douglas, the compromise line was repealed by 
Congress. Emigrant societies were established in Massachu- 
setts and Connecticut, in 1854, to furnish pecuniary aid to 
settlers in Kansas. In consequence, a hostile population 
from the North poured into Kansas. Bands of armed men 



122 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

from the North paraded the territory. The Federal Govern- 
ment, whose jurisdiction extended over this distant country, 
■was finally forced to interfere. The leaders of the anti- 
slavery propaganda, having violated the Federal prerogative 
by passing a constitution* and electing a Governor, were in- 
dicted for treason, and obliged to take flight.")" 

In 1857, James Buchanan, of Pennsylvania, was inaugu- 
rated President. The whole of this term was disturbed by 
a heated contest between the politicians of the North, on 
the subject of slavery in the territories. Towards the close 
of this Presidency, the prolonged strife between the politi- 
cians, on the topic of slavery, was taken up by the people of 
the two sections, in an election for a new President, Novem- 
ber, 1860. The Northern States, being in the majority, 
pronounced in favor of Abraham Lincoln, of Illinois, the 
exponent of their sectional views. Under these circum- 
stances, the Southern States have dissolved their connection 
with the Union. The civil compact they made with the 
Northern States, in 1789, guaranteeing equal rights to both, 
and equal protection to all, had been violated. Being in a 
minority in the Confederacy, they could oppose no legal 
barrier to the anti-slavery sentiments of the North, which, 
carried into legislation, would confiscate their property, and 
even involve their lives. 

* Called the Topeka Constitution, after the village where the Con- 
vention met. 

-j- The Northern politicians, during this term, dropped the appel- 
lation of "Whig," and assumed that of "Republican," better known 
as " Black Republican." 



AND REPOSITORY OP USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 123 

History of 
ABOLITIONISM IN THE NORTHERN STATES. 



AGGRESSIONS OP THE ABOLITIONISTS AND FANATICS OP THE 
NORTH ON THE RIGHTS AND PROPERTY OP THE SOUTH. 



Abolitionism, under the guise of philanthropic reform, has 
pursued its course with energy, boldness, and unrelenting 
bitterness, until it has grown from "a cloud no bigger than 
a man's hand " into the dimensions of the tempest which is 
to-day lowering over the land, charged with the elements of 
destruction. Commencing with a pretended love for the 
black race, it has arrived at a stage of restless, uncompro- 
mising fanaticism, which will be satisfied with nothing short 
of the consummation of its wildest hopes. It has become 
the grand question of the day at the North — of politics, of 
ethics, of expediency, of justice, of conscience, and of law, 
covering the whole field of human society and divine govern- 
ment. 

In this view of the subject, and in view also of the sur- 
rounding circumstances of the country, which have their 
origin in this agitation, we give below a history of abolition- 
ism, from the period it commenced to exist, as an active 
element in the affairs of the nation, down to the present 
moment. 

ABOLITIONISTS AND THEIR OBJECTS. 

The real ultra abolitionists, who comprise the larger body 
of the people of the North — the " reformers," in the Ian- 



124 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

guage of Henry Clay, are " resolved to persevere at all 
hazards, and without regard to any consequences, however 
calamitous they may be. With them, the rights of property 
are nothing; the deficiency of the powers of the general 
government is nothing ; the acknowledged and incontestable 
powers of the States are nothing; civil war, a dissolution of 
the Union, and the overthrow of a government, in which are 
concentrated the fondest hopes of the civilized world, are 
nothing. They are for the immediate abolition of slavery, 
the prohibition of the removal of slaves from State to State, 
and the refusal to admit any new State comprising within its 
limits the institution of domestic slavery — all these being 
but so many means conducive to the accomplishment of the 
ultimate end at which they avowedly and boldly aim — so 
many short stages, as it were, in the long and bloody road to 
the distant goal at which they would ultimately arrive. 
Their purpose is abolition, ' peaceably if it can, forcibly if it 
must.' " 

Utterly destitute of Constitutional, or other rightful power ; 
living in totally distinct communities, as alien to the com- 
munities in which the subject on which they would operate 
resides, as far as concerns political power over that subject, 
as if they lived in Asia or Africa, they nevertheless promul- 
gate to the world their purpose to immediately convert, 
without compensation, four millions of profitable and con- 
tented slaves into four millions of burdensome and discon- 
tented negroes. 

This idea, which originated, and still generally prevails, in 
New England, is the result of that puritanical frenzy which 
has always characterized that section of the country, and 
made it the natural breeding-ground of the most absurd 
" isms " ever concocted. The Puritans of to-day are not 
less fanatical than were the Puritans of two centuries ago. 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 125 

In fact, they have progressed, rather than retrograded. 
Their god then was the angry, wrathful, jealous god of the 
Jews — the Supreme Being, now, is the creation of their own 
intellects, proportioned in dimensions to the depth and fervor 
of their individual understandings. Then, the Old Testa- 
ment was their rule of faith. Now, neither old nor new, 
except in so far as it accords with their consciences, is worth 
the paper upon which it is written. Their creeds are 
begotten of themselves, and their high-priests are those who 
best represent their peculiar " notions." The same spirit 
which, in the days of Robespierre and Marat, abolished the 
Lord's day and worshipped Reason, in the person of a harlot, 
yet survives to work other horrors. In this age, however, 
and in a community like the present, a disguise must be 
worn ; but it is the old threadbare advocacy of human rights, 
which the enlightenment of the age condemns as impracti- 
cable. The decree has gone forth which strikes at God, by 
striking at all subordination and law, and under the specious 
cry of reform, it is demanded that every pretended evil shall 
be corrected, or society become a wreck — that the sun must 
be stricken from the heavens if a spot is found upon his disc. 
The abolitionist is a practical atheist. In the language of 
one of their congregational ministers — Rev. Henry Wright, 
of Massachusetts : 

"The God of humanity is not the God of slavery. If so, shame 
upon such a God. I scorn him. I will never bow to his shrine ; my 
head shall go off with my hat when I take it off to such a God as 
that. If the Bible sanctions slavery, the Bible is a self-evident 
falsehood. And, if God should declare it to be right, I would fasten 
the chain upon the heel of such a God, and let the man go free. 
Such a God is a phantom." 

The religion of the people of New England is a peculiar 
morality, around which the minor matters of society arrange 



126 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

themselves like ferruginous particles around a loadstone. 
All the elements obey this general law. Accustomed to 
doing as it pleases, New England " morality " has usually 
accomplished what it has undertaken. It has attacked the 
Sunday mails, assaulted Free Masonry, triumphed over the 
intemperate use of ardent spirits, and finally engaged in an 
onslaught upon the slavery of the South. Its channels have 
been societies, meetings, papers, lectures, sermons, resolu- 
tions, memorials, protests, legislation, private discussion, pub- 
lic addresses ; in a word, every conceivable method whereby 
appeal may be brought to mind. Its spirit has been agita- 
tion ! — and its language, fruits, and measures, have partaken 
throughout of a character that is thoroughly warlike. 

" In language no element ever flung out more defiance of 
authority, contempt of religion, or authority to man. As to 
agency, no element on earth has broken up more friendships 
and families, societies and parties, churches and denomina- 
tions, or ruptured more organizations, political, social, or do- 
mestic. And as to measures ! What spirit of man ever 
stood upon earth with bolder front and wielded fiercer 
weapons ? Stirring harangues ! Stern resolutions ! Fretful 
memorials ! Angry protests ! Incendiary pamphlets at the 
South ! Hostile legislation at the North ! Underground 
railroads at the West ! Resistance to the Constitution ! 
Division of the Union ! Military contribution ! Sharpe's 
rifles ! Higher law ! If this is not belligerence enough, 
Mohammed's work and the old Crusades were an appeal to 
argument and not to arms." 

It is a very common error that the Puritans persecuted 
themselves for opinion's sake, sought liberty of conscience in 
the wilderness of America, and there erected its altar. To 
Sir George Calvert belongs the imperishable glory of first 
establishing a government of which universal toleration and 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 127 

religious freedom were the chief foundation stones. It is a 
remarkable fact that the same spot — the shores of Maryland 
— which was thus embalmed in the affections of freemen, 
should, after the lapse of a little more than two centuries 
and a quarter, be the first territory of the great republic de- 
secrated by the foot of the tyrant, and the extinction of 
political and civil liberty. 

It is true that the Puritans fled from England on account 
of violent opposition, amounting to persecution. In thus 
expatriating these schismatics, the English of that day, as 
subsequent developments have demonstrated, exhibited a 
thorough insight into the nature and tendencies of their 
principles and character. One of their first acts, after their 
colony had assumed some form and substance, was the estab- 
lishment of a spiritual despotism and religious intolerance as 
cruel and relentless as the Roman Inquisition in Spain. 
Professing to be themselves religious refugees, they de- 
nounced a dreary banishment against all heretics and non- 
conformists. Every student of American history is familiar 
with the sad but ever-glorious story of Roger Williams. He 
was a fugitive from the persecutions of the old world, but, 
unlike his fellow-sufferers, comprehended the nature and 
wrong of intolerance, and proposed the true remedy. He 
taught that " the civil magistrate should restrain crime, but 
never control opinion ; should punish guilt, but never violate 
the freedom of the soul." He contended for the abolition 
of all laws punishing non-conformists, requiring the perform- 
ance of religious duties, enforcing pecuniary contributions to 
the support of the church ; and that equal protection should 
be extended to every religious belief — the peace of the State, 
like the vital fluid we breathe, surrounding and gathering 
alike over mosque, synagogue, cathedral, and the humble 
"house of God" of the Protestant, securing to their re- 



128 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

spective worshippers unmolested sanctity of conscience. For 
holding and advocating these just and truly sublime doc- 
trines, now fully recognized and enforced by the free Consti- 
tution of the Confederate States, this "young minister, 
godly and zealous, having precious gifts," and whose opinions 
and teachings we have given in almost the identical language 
of a Yankee historian, was most cruelly persecuted by the 
Puritans, and forced to hide himself in the recesses of the 
howling wilderness " in winter snow and inclement weather, 
of which he remembered the severity even in his late old 
age." " Often," says Bancroft, " in the stormy night he had 
neither fire, nor food, nor company • often he wandered with- 
out a guide, and had no house but a hollow tree." The 
savage of the forest, more tolerant than these narrow bigots, 
and who knew not his God at all, kindly rescued him from 
the dread doom to which he had been consigned, to find a 
new home, and found a new State, by the undisturbed waters 
of the Narragansett. Mrs. Hutchinson, a most pure and 
excellent woman, for the same crime, suffered the same mis- 
erable persecutions. There is no more infallible criterion of 
the tone of a people than the position occupied by the weaker 
sex. Grallantry was the guiding-star of returning light in the 
mediaeval ages. Devotion to women makes gentlemen. And 
where gentlemen inhabit, there woman " rules the court, the 
camp, the grove;" her refined presence elevates him above 
his more grovelling nature ; and in return he is in very 
truth her slave, and with life and limb and manly honor de- 
voted to her service. The historical fact which we last men- 
tioned, therefore, truly illustrates Yankee character. Heavens ! 
what a spectacle ! A horde of mean-spirited, whining Yan- 
kees pelting a shivering, defenceless woman into a rigorous 
exile, for entertaining a peculiar opinion, or not conforming 
to some rite of public worship. And with what unutterable 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 129 

indignation does the Southern blood boil at the hanging of 
Mary Dyer, simply because she was a Quaker. This was her 
only offence. She died, and died upon the gallows, because 
she held a faith different from those people toho had devoted 
themselves a sacrifice on the altar of religious liberty. The 
ferocious and bloody fanaticism of the witchcraft persecutions 
is too revolting for statement. It is enough to recur to it. 

"And what man, seeing this, 
And having human feelings, does not blush, 
And hang his head, to think himself a man !" 

Glance for a moment at the Puritans in power in the colony 
of Maryland, in the year 1676. We have already alluded 
to the fact that the Roman Catholics had there established 
perfect freedom of conscience, and opened an asylum for the 
persecuted and proscribed of every faith. Availing them- 
selves of this liberality of religious jurisprudence, many 
Puritans from New England entered the colony, and in the 
course of a revolution, in the year we have named, mounted 
into political power. The earliest exercise of sovereignty by 
this new and godly regime was an edict prohibiting the free- 
dom of public worship to all papists and prelatists. Here 
we see manifested the same despicable spirit that now ani- 
mates the Lincoln government. Indeed, the Yankee is the 
same animal in all ages, and in all situations. He is " uni- 
versal." 

The great fathers of the State were convinced that the 
heterogeneous peoples, whom they had bound together, would 
not long dwell in peace. Washington sincerely desired the 
perpetuation of the Union, but he died in the belief that, 
in the course of time, his tomb would become the exclusive 
property of the South. And John Adams, perhaps the next 
man to Alexander Hamilton, among the Northern patriots, 



130 

had a clear and unclouded vision of the great rupture, 
though he was somewhat deceived as to its proximity to his 
own day. The following passage from Mr. Jefferson's diary, 
presents the views of Mr. Adams upon this subject, and is 
also interesting as another illustration of the supreme mean- 
ness of Yankee sentiment, even in its most exalted type. 

"December the 30th, 1803. The Rev. Mr. Coffin, of New Eng- 
land, who is now here, soliciting donations for a college in Green 
county, in Tennessee, tells me that when he first determined to en- 
gage in this enterprise, he wrote a paper, recommendatory of the 
enterprise, which he meant to get signed by clergymen, and a simi- 
lar one for persons in a civil character, at the head of which he 
wished Mr. Adams to put his name, he being then President, and the 
application going only for his name, and not for a donation. Mr. 
Adams, after reading the paper and considering, said ' he saw no 
possibility of continuing the union of the States ; that their dissolu- 
tion must necessarily take place ; that he, therefore, saw no pro- 
priety in recommending to New England men to promote a literary 
institution in the South ; that it was, in fact, giving strength to 
those who were to be their enemies, and therefore he would have 
nothing to do with it.' " 

What was philanthropy in our forefathers has become mis- 
anthropy in their descendants, and compassion for the slave 
has given way to malignity against the master. Conse- 
quences are nothing. The one idea preeminent above all 
others is abolition ! 

It is worthy of notice in this connection that most aboli- 
tionists know little or nothing of slavery and slaveholders 
beyond what they have learned from excited, caressed, and 
tempted fugitives, or from a superficial, accidental, or preju- 
diced observation. From distorted facts, gross misrepresen- 
tations, and frequently malicious caricatures, they have come 
to regard Southern slaveholders as the most unprincipled 
men in the universe, with no incentive but avarice, no feel- 
ing but selfishness, and no sentiment but cruelty. 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 131 

Their information is acquired from discharged seamen, 
runaway slaves, agents, factious politicians, and scurrilous 
tourists ; and no matter how exaggerated may be the facts, 
they never fail to find willing believers among this class of 
people. 

In the Church, the missionary spirit with which the men 
of other times and nobler hearts intended to embrace all, 
both bond and free, has been crushed out. New methods of 
Scriptural interpretation have been discovered, under which 
the Bible brings to light things of which Jesus Christ and 
his disciples had no conception. Assemblings for divine 
worship have been converted into occasions for the secret 
dissemination of incendiary doctrines, and thus a common 
suspicion has been generated of all Northern agency in the 
diffusion of religious instruction among the slaves. Of the 
five broad, beautiful bands of Christianity thrown around the 
North and the South — Presbyterian, old school and new, 
Episcopalian, Methodist, and Baptist, to say nothing of the 
divisions of Bible, tract, and missionary societies — three are 
already ruptured — and whenever an anniversary brings to- 
gether the various delegates of these organizations, the sad 
spectacle is presented of division, wrangling, vituperation, 
and reproach, that gives to religion and its professors any 
thing but that meekness of spirit with which it is wont to 
be invested. 

Politically, the course of abolition has been one of constant 
aggression upon the South. 

At the time of the Old Confederation, the amount of ter- 
ritory owned by the Southern States was 647,202 square 
miles; and the amount owned by the Northern States, 
164,081. In 1783, Virginia ceded to the United States, for 
the common benefit, all her immense territory northwest of 
the river Ohio. In 1787, the Northern States appropriated 



182 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

it to their own exclusive use, by passing the celebrated ordi- 
nance of that year, whereby Virginia and all her sister States 
were excluded from the benefits of the territory. This was 
the first in the series of agressions. 

Again, in April, 1803, the United States purchased from 
France, for fifteen millions of dollars, the territory of Lou- 
isiana, comprising an area of 1,189,112 square miles, the 
whole of which was slaveholding territory. In 1821, by the 
passage of the Missouri Compromise, 964,667 square miles 
of this was converted into free territory. 

Again, by the treaty with Spain, of February, 1819, the 
United States gained the territory from which the present 
State of Florida was formed, with an area of 59,268 square 
miles, and also the Spanish title of Oregon, from which they 
acquired an area of 341,463 square miles. Of this cession, 
Florida only has been allowed to the Southern States, while 
the balance — nearly six-sevenths of the whole — was appro- 
priated by the North. 

Again, by the Mexican cession, was acquired 526,078 
square miles, which the North attempted to appropriate under 
the pretence of the Mexican laws, but which was prevented 
by the measures of the Compromise of 1850. Of slave ter- 
ritory cut off from Texas, there have been 44,662 square 
miles. 

To sum this up, the total amount of territory acquired 
under the Constitution has been, by the 

Northwest cession 286,681 square miles. 

Louisiana cession 1,189,112 " " 

Florida and Oregon cession 400,731 " " 

Mexican cession 526,078 " " 

Total 2,402,602 " 

Of all this territory, the Southern States have been per- 
mitted to enjoy only 283,713 square miles, while the Northern 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 133 

States have been allowed 2,083,889 square miles, or between 
seven and eight times more than has been allowed to the 
South. 

The following are some of the invasions that have been, 
from time to time, proposed upon the Constitution, in the 
halls of Congress, bv these asritators : 

1. That the clause allowing the representation of three- 
fifths of the slaves shall be obliterated from the Constitution ; 
or, in other words, that the South, already in a vast and in- 
creasing minority, shall be still further reduced in the scale 
of insignificance, and thus, on every attempted usurpation of 
her rights, be far below the protection of even a Presidential 
veto. 

Next has been demanded the abolition of slavery in the 
District of Columbia, in the forts, arsenals, navy yards and 
other public establishments of the United States. What ob- 
ject have the abolitionists had for raising all this clamor 
about a little patch of soil ten miles square, and a few in- 
considerable places, thinly scattered over the land — a mere 
grain of sand upon the beach — unless it be to establish the 
precedent of Congressional interference, which would enable 
them to make a wholesale incursion upon the constitutional 
rights of the South, and to drain from the vast ocean of al- 
leged national guilt its last drop ? Does any one suppose 
that a mere microscopic concession like this would alone ap- 
pease a conscience wounded and lacerated by the " sin of 
slavery ?" 

Another of these aggressions is that which was proposed 
under the pretext of regulating commerce between the 
States— namely, that no slave, for any purpose and under any 
circumstances whatever, shall be carried by his lawful owner 
from one slaveholding State to another ; or, in other words, 
that where slavery now is there it shall remain forever, until, 



134 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

by its own increase, the slave population shall outnumber the 
white race, and thus by a united combination of causes — the 
fears of the master, the diminution in value of his property, 
and the exhausted condition of the soil — the final purposes 
of fanaticism may be accomplished. 

Still another in the series of aggressions, was that at- 
tempted by the Wilmot Proviso, by which Congress was 
palled upon to prohibit every slaveholder from removing with 
his slaves into the territory acquired from Mexico — a terri- 
tory as large as the old thirteen States originally composing 
the Union. It appears to have been forgotten that whether 
slavery be admitted upon one foot of territory or not, it can- 
not affect the question of its sinfulness in the slightest de- 
gree, and that if every nook and corner of the national fabric 
were open to the institution, not a single slave would be 
added to the present number, or that, if excluded, their 
number would not be a single one the less. 

We might also refer to the armed and bloody opposition to 
the Fugitive Slave Law, to the passage of Personal Liberty 
Bills, to political schemes in Congress and out, and to sys- 
tematic agitation everywhere, with a view to stay the progress 
of the South, contract her political power, and eventually 
lead, at her expense, if not of the Union itself, to the utter 
expurgation of this "tremendous national sin." 

In short, the abolitionists have contributed nothing to the 
welfare of the slave or of the South. While over one hun- 
dred and fifty millions have been expended by slaveholders 
in emancipation, except in those sporadic cases where the 
amount was capital invested in self-glorification, the aboli- 
tionists have not expended one cent. 

More than this : They have defeated the very objects at 
which they have aimed. When Virginia, Maryland, Ken- 
tucky, or some other border State has come so near to the 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 135 

passage of gradual emancipation laws that the hopes of the 
real friends of the movement seemed about to be realized, 
abolitionism has stepped in, and, with frantic appeals to the 
passions of the negroes, through incendiary publications, 
dashed them to the ground, and producing a reaction through- 
out the entire community that has crushed out every in- 
cipient thought of future manumission. 

Such have been the obvious fruits of abolition. Church, 
State, and society ! — nothing has escaped it. Nowhere pure, 
nor peaceable, nor gentle, nor easily entreated, nor full of 
mercy and good fruits ; but everywhere forward, scowling, 
uncompromising, and fierce, breaking peace, order, and struc- 
ture, at every step, crushing with its foot what would not bow 
to its will ; defying government, despising the Church, di- 
viding the country, and striking Heaven itself, if it dared to 
obstruct its progress ; purifying, pacifying, promising nothing, 
but marking its entire pathway by disquiet, schism, and ruin. 

We come now to the train of historical facts upon which 
we rely in proof of the foregoing assertions. 

From what I have already stated, it may be seen that 
during the colonial existence of this country, African Slavery 
had been introduced and overspread its whole surface. The 
Southern Colonies had, from the fertility of the soil and 
the value of their productions, become the most profitable 
mart for Black labor ; but the influx gradually outstripped 
their productive powers, and began, as elsewhere, to inspire 
the leading men of this section with serious alarm.* They 
devised what means they could to check it, but commercial 
rapacity eluded or overpowered their remonstrances. While 
the Southern Colonies were thus suffering, at this early date, 
both inconvenience and detriment from the Blacks who were 

* On account of the immense number of Slaves imported by the 
North. 



136 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

forced upon them, the Northern, or New England Colonies, 
were driving a brisk and profitable business upon the solitary 
basis of the African Slave Trade. The principal occupa- 
tions of these Colonies consisted of Commerce and the Fish- 
eries. The New England ships made the voyage to England 
with tobacco, rice, and other Southern products, and then 
took in British manufactures for the Gold Coast, which ex- 
changing for Blacks, they returned with them to the South- 
ern Colonies, sold them, and reloaded with tobacco, etc., for 
the North and Europe, as before, thus completing the round 
voyage. The fisheries employed a considerable number of 
persons, and the cured fish found sale chiefly in the Catholic 
countries of Europe, mostly in exchange for coin,* which 
was always in demand for England. Large quantities of 
these fish were sold in the West Indies for sugar and mo- 
lasses. The latter was distilled into rum, which, in the 
chansrinc: character of the Slave Trade on the Coast under 
the British Governors, rapidly became a favorite article of 
barter for Blacks, greatly to the dissatisfaction of the English 
manufacturers of coast-goods. Lord Sheffield, in his report 
to the Parliamentary Committee of 1777, states, that "out 
of the Slavers which periodically left Boston, thirteen of 
them were loaded with rum only, and that having exchanged 
this for 2.888 Negroes with the governors of the Gold Coast, 
they carried them thence to the Southern Colonies." The 
same report mentions that during the three years ending with 
1770, New England had sent 270,147 gallons of rum to the 
Gold Coast. Thus, from what I have stated, the startling 
fact will be elicited, that the Northern and Southern Colo- 
nies, long before the breaking out of the Revolutionary War, 
were engaged in a lively controversy on the subject of 

* These were almost the only coins that circulated in those Colo- 
nies at that time, and consisted of Joes, Half-Joes, Pistoles, etc. 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 187 

slavery; the South resisting the excessive flow of Blacks 
into their section, and New England persisting in the impor- 
tation for the profits of the trade. The South was anxious 
to stop the Slave Trade and manumit their Blacks, hut New 
England, like the mother country, was not disposed to listen 
to them, and abandon so lucrative a traffic. 

Mr. Jefferson, of Virginia, seems to have been one of the 
most earnest advocates of the Southern sentiment. In 1777, 
being then a member of the Virginia Legislature, he brought 
in a bill which became a law, " to prevent the importation of 
slaves/' He also proposed a system of general emancipation, 
as a preliminary to which he introduced a bill to authorize 
manumission, and this became a law. In these efforts he had 
the support and sympathy of the Slaveholding States, who 
were overrun with slaves, that returned no adequate remu- 
neration. At this period their numbers reached some 
600,000, a part of whom were employed in raising tobacco 
and rice. The majority of them, however, were occupied in 
domestic farm-labor, producing no exportable values. Hence 
there was no profit in slavery at the South, while at the North 
it was even a greater burden. Massachusetts found it so un- 
productive that, in 1780, she abolished it in her own borders, 
but she did not cease for that reason to force it, by her im- 
portations, on the South. 

In the Congress of the Confederation, the views of the 
North and South on the subject of slavery, founded on in- 
terests so antagonistic, frequently came into collision. It 
was at this epoch, too, that Virginia, Georgia, and other 
Southern States, ceded to the Federal Government, for the 
common benefit of .all the States, their immense Western 
Territories. All the States were then Slaveholding, and the 
idea that a man could not hold his slaves in any part of the 
territory of the United States, had never yet been broached. 



138 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

On the contrary, the right to carry them everywhere was un- 
doubted. The policy of Virginia, however, was manumis- 
sion ; and Mr. Jefferson, in 1784, prepared in the Congress 
of the Confederation a clause preventing slaves being carried 
into the said territories ceded to the United States, north of 
the Ohio River. This was a part of the Southern scheme of 
manumission, which was meant as a check to the trading in 
Negro slaves, carried on by Massachusetts with unabated ac- 
tivity. This clause did not pass at the time, but, in 1787, it 
was renewed by Nathan Dane, in the Federal Convention. 
The clause enjoining the restitution of fugitive slaves was 
then added, and it passed unanimously. By a unanimous vote 
it became a vital part of the Federal Constitution, and without 
it this compact could never have gone into effect. The Slave 
Trade carried on by the North became, also, the theme of 
much sharp discussion in the Convention. The North was 
not disposed, of course, to give it up, but with the South it 
had become an intolerable grievance. They had long and 
earnestly protested against it when carried on by the mother 
country, but their minds were now made up to break with 
the North rather than submit further to this traffic. The 
North then demanded compensation for the loss of this very 
thriving trade, and the South readily conceded it by granting 
them the monopoly of the coasting and carrying trade 
against all foreign tonnage. In this way it was settled that 
the Slave Trade should be abolished after 1808.* Without 

* In corroboration of the above, I append the following extract 
from the sermon of Rev. Dr. N. Adams, of the Essex Street Church, 
Boston, delivered on Fast Day, January 4, 1861 : 

"We at the North are certainly responsible before God for the 
existence of slavei'y in our land. The Committee of the Convention 
"which framed the Constitution of the United States consisted of 
Messrs. Rutledge, of South Carolina, Randolph, of Virginia, and 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE, 139 

this important clause, the South would never have consented 
to enter into a Confederacy with the North. The Federal 
Constitution, with these essential clauses, having passed into 
operation, it became, henceforth, a certainty that the Slave 
Trade would finally expire in the United States at the close of 
1808. This left it still a duration of nineteen years, and the 
North seemed determined to reap the utmost possible advantage 
from the time remaining. The Duke de Kochefoucault- 
Liancourt, in his work on the United States, 1795, states, 
that " twenty vessels from the harbors of the North are en- 
gaged in the importation of slaves into Georgia; they ship 
one Negro for every ton burden." Thus we see, that while 
New England was vigorously engaged in buying and selling 
Negro slaves, Virginia, on the other hand, was steadfastly 
pursuing her theory of manumission. 

In 1793, Congress, on the recommendation of President 
Washington, passed an act to put in force the clause of the 
Constitution enjoining the restoration of fugitive slaves. It 
seems evident they were regarded by the Constitution in the 
light of property only. It likewise provided for taxing them, 

three from Free States, viz. : Messrs. Wilson of Pennsylvania, Gor- 
ham, of Massachusetts, and Ellsworth, of Connecticut. They re- 
ported as a section for the Constitution, that no tax or other duty 
should be laid on the migration or importation of such persons as 
the several States should think proper to admit ; not that such mi- 
gration or importation should be prohibited. This was referred by 
the Convention to a committee, a majority of whom being from the 
Slave States, they reported that the Slave Trade be abolished after 
1800, and that a tax be levied on imported slaves. But in the Con- 
vention, the Free States of Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and 
Connecticut, voted to extend the trade eight years, and it was accord- 
ingly done ; by means of which it is estimated there are now at least 
three hundred thousand more slaves in the country than there would 
otherwise have been." 



140 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

and ordained that three-fifths of their number should be a 
basis of representation. This was, certainly, the view taken 
by the framers of the Constitution, in their intercourse with 
foreign nations. John Adams, afterwards President, and 
Doctor Franklin signed, in 1783, the Treaty of Peace with 
Great Britain, which contained provision for payment of 
" Slaves and other Property" carried away during the War. 
These Treaties were examined and approved by the Govern- 
ment, composed also of the very men who had taken the 
leading part in drafting the Constitution. In the Treaty of 
Peace at Ghent, in 1815, the same clause recurred, and the 
British Government paid a million and a half of dollars for 
Slaves that had been carried off by the enemy. The ac- 
counts of Hon. Richard Rush, when Secretary of the Trea- 
sury, contain the various sums paid by the United States 
Government to the "Owners of Slaves and other Property." 
Our Government has also made frequent demands for the 
payment of Slave-property since the Peace. Some twenty 
years since, the American Minister, Mr. Andrew Stevenson, 
conducted a negotiation with England for the payment of 
sundry slaves that had been cast ashore from wrecked Amer- 
ican vessels, and set free by the authorities of Bermuda. 
The demand was finally acknowledged, and the sum of 
£23,500 was paid as an indemnity. In a word, the action of 
the Federal Government has been uniform and consistent 
in asserting and protecting the rights of our Slave-owners 
against all Foreign Powers. The right to this property has 
been just as positively recognized in our domestic relations. 
In all the State Conventions held to discuss the Federal 
Constitution prior to adopting it, the right of property in 
slaves was never contested. The law at that time for recov- 
ering that property was of a summary nature. The owner 
might seize his property wherever he found it, and on making 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 141 

an affidavit before a Federal Judge, a warrant was issued for 
the removal of it. There was no provision for trial by jury, 
or for writ of Habeas Corpus, which would be indispensable 
if Black Slaves were considered as persons. 

In 1797, John Adams, who signed the Treaty of Peace, 
and was the leader of the New England, or Federal Party, 
succeeded Washington in the Presidential chair. At this 
period, the Slavery question was frequently agitated by the 
Democratic Party of the South, with a view to its modifica- 
tion. In 1800, January 2, Mr. Wain, of Philadelphia, pre- 
sented a petition to Congress, from the free Blacks of Phila- 
delphia, praying for a revision of the Fugitive Slave Law. 
On this occasion, Mr. Harrison Gray Otis, a leader of the 
Federal party, thus expressed himself: "Although he pos- 
sessed no slaves himself," he said, " yet he saw no reason 
why others might not; and that their owners, and not Con- 
gress, were the fittest persons to regulate that species of 
property." Mr. Brown, of Rhode Island, on the same occa- 
sion, declared " that the petition was not from Negroes, but 
was the contrivance of a combination of Jacobins, (meaning 
the Democratic party), who had troubled Congress for many 
years, and he feared would never cease to do so. He there- 
fore moved that the petition be taken away by those who had 
brought it there." The motion being supported by Messrs. 
Gallatin, Dana, and other Northern members, the petition 
was withdrawn. In this debate, the Northern members who 
represented the Slave-trading interests, naturally adhered to 
the Property in Blacks, although the new doctrine of the 
British Abolitionists began to make converts in this coun- 
try, outside of the body of Quakers, who had always opposed 
slavery. 

It may be as well to remark here, that it does not appear 
any laws were ever enacted in Great Britain authorizing the 



o 



&' 



142 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

trading in, or possession of, Black Slaves as property. Nev- 
ertheless, that they were so regarded, is evident from the 
opinion of the Eleven Crown Judges, given in pursuance of 
an Order in Council, and in consequence of wh/ch the Navi- 
gation Act was extended to the Slave Trade, to the exclusion 
of Aliens. The laws by which England allowed the holding 
of slaves, extended, of course, to the Colonies ; and all those 
of North America held slaves, without any special enact- 
ments for that purpose. The right was inherent, like that 
to any property ; and when the separation of the Colonies 
from the mother country took place, that legal right, like the 
Common Law of England, survived the Kevolution, and re- 
mained in force in all parts of the country. 

It is claimed by the Anti-slavery party that slavery exists 
by local law only, and cannot exist out of the State sanc- 
tioning it. Whereas, it is maintained by their opponents 
that it originally existed all over the land, whether as Colo- 
nies or States, and that it required a special law to exclude 
it. This fact is beyond cavil.* It should be also recol- 
lected that the Spanish and French Colonies, that after- 
wards became a part of the United States, derived the right 
to hold slaves from the head of the Church, as well as from 
the State. 

To return to the record of events. During Mr. Jeffer- 
son's first term of office, the State of Virginia proposed to 
the Federal Government that the proceeds of the public 
lands that had been ceded to it should be appropriated to 
the manumission and removal of slaves, with the sanction of 
the respective States. This movement was not successful. 

* Among other authorities on this question of the day, may be 
cited that of Chief Justice Parker, of Massachusetts, the leading Abo- 
lition State. In 2 Pickering, he says: "We thus, in making the 
Constitution, entered into an agreement that slaves should be con- 
sidered as property," etc. 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 143 

It is necessary to notice two very important events that 
occurred during the administration of Mr. Jefferson, which 
wholly changed the destiny of Black Slavery in the United 
States. The first was the invention of the cotton-gin,* 
which gave great additional value to this staple, and hence 
opened a broader field to the employment of the Blacks. 
The next was the purchase of Louisiana, which added new 
and valuable territory to the South and its special products. 
These two events revolutionized completely the value of 
Slave labor at the South, and the Blacks, instead of contin- 
uing a burden, as hitherto, became henceforward a source of 
profit. 

On the other hand, the approaching termination of the 
Slave Trade, which had profitably employed for so many 
years the commercial interests of New England, rendered 
that section not only indifferent to the prolongation of 
slavery, but even out of chagrin from having been forced by 
the opposition of the South to give it up, they began to 
nourish a species of spite against it, and which has since 
manifested itself with uninterrupted bitterness. 

The cessation of the Slave Trade, and the purchase of 
Louisiana, both of which were so distasteful to the North, 
were followed, as already stated by the Embargo Act, in Mr. 
Jefferson's administration ; and all this together, gave nearly 
a quietus to the commercial interests of New England. The 
exasperation which followed these measures, that seemed to 
threaten ruin to this section, led shortly to a desire to break up 
the Confederacy. In February, 1809, the Governor-General 
of Canada, Craig, deputed his agent, John Henry, to go to 
Boston and treat with the leading Federalists there; and by the 

* This admirable machine for separating the seed from the cotton, 
with extreme celerity, was the invention of Eli Whitney. 



144 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

arrangement then made, Massachusetts was to declare itself 
independent, and invite a Congress to erect a separate Gov- 
ernment. Mr. John Q. Adams, Ex-President, in a letter to 
Mr. Otis, 1828, states that the plan had been so far ma- 
tured, that proposals had been made to a certain individual 
to put himself at the head of the military organization. 
These schemes went on until they resulted in the Hartford 
Convention, 1814, where the subject of a Northern Confed- 
eracy, in all its bearings, underwent discussion. The senti- 
ment of the North at that time may be seen in the party cry : 
" The Potomac for a boundary — The Negro States to them- 
selves." This was the favorite phrase of the day all over 
the Eastern States. The peace with Great Britain soon 
afterwards occurred, and the stimulus this gave to business of 
all kinds, together with the conciliatory conduct, as stated of 
Mr. Calhouu, of South Carolina, diverted New England from 
her resolute menace to break up the Union. 

While this irritation was still lingering in the Northern 
mind, a bill was introduced into Congress, 1818, to authorize 
the people of Missouri to form a Constitution, preparatory 
to admission into the Union. This territory was a portion 
of that same Louisiana whose purchase had been so vehe- 
mently resisted by New England. During its ownership by 
Spain, and afterwards by Prance, slavery had existed in the 
whole of this territory, and it remained undisturbed after its 
purchase by the United States ; nevertheless its admission 
into the Union as a Slave State, was violently opposed by the 
Eastern States. An ardent political struggle ensued, that 
threatened the safety of the Confederacy, but which was, 
finally, allayed by admitting Missouri as a Slave State, but 
on the condition that no more Slave States should exist north 
of the 36° 30' parallel of latitude. This is the well-known 
Missouri Compromise. It was at this time, also, that the 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 145 

Slave Trade was declared^ to be Piracy, jind punishable with 
death. 

Meanwhile, slavery had become so manifestly unprofitable 
at the North, that most of these States abolished it. Xew 
York did so in 1826, and many other States, even Delaware, 
Maryland, and Virginia, were moving in the same direction. 
New Jersey, Ohio, and Delaware, passed resolutions desiring 
Congress to appropriate the proceeds of the Public Lands to 
the manumission of slaves, with the consent of the Slave 
States. In 1825, Rufus King, of New York, made the same 
proposition in Congress, where it had been originally intro- 
duced by Virginia. At this period, in the Southern States 
the utmost favor was extended to Emancipation. Societies 
for this purpose were formed to cooperate with the Coloniza- 
tion Society, then in full vigor, and whose object was to free 
Blacks and transport them to Liberia. In March, 1825, 
Virginia passed an act to furnish the Colonists in Liberia, 
under the direction of the "Richmond and Manchester 
(England) Colonization Society," with implements of hus- 
bandry, clothing, etc. The emancipation of Blacks to be 
sent to Liberia, were frequent all over the Southern States, 
and on a liberal scale. Alabama, Louisiana, and Missouri, 
passed laws prohibiting slaves to be brought within their 
borders for sale, and further enacting that those brought in 
by settlers should not be sold under two years. 

The sentiment of Emancipation was making steady pro- 
gress ; but, at the same time, a decided repugnance to free 
Blacks began to manifest itself. Ohio, Illinois, and other 
Northwestern States, forbade by law free^. Blacks coming into 
the State, under any pretence; and a white person who 
brought one in, was required to give bonds in §500. They 
were not regarded as citizens of the United States, and from 
their idle habits, were considered as a nuisance everywhere. 
6 



146 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

The Southern States also enacted that free Blacks arriving 
there as seamen, should be under surveillance while in port. 
In consequence of this general antipathy to free Blacks, and 
in view of the difficulty of deporting them, Mr. Tucker, of 
Virginia, proposed in Congress, 1825, to set off the territory 
west of the Rocky Mountains as a Colony for free Blacks. 
This effort failed ; but all the leading statesmen of the South, 
Mr. Mangum, Mr. McDuffie, etc., urged the adoption of some 
scheme of emancipation. 

About this time, a new movement was initiated in New 
England. The doctrine of Abolition was then at the zenith 
of its popularity in England, where it was already proposed 
to transplant it to our Southern States, which would then be 
converted into a great free Black cotton-growing country. 
This utterly impracticable idea was seized upon by various 
individuals of the New England States, who forthwith began 
to sow the seeds of agitation. It is impossible to attribute 
to them any very philanthropic motive; for only twenty years 
had elapsed since Massachusetts had been forced to give up 
her slave-trading, and it is not at all credible that the tastes 
thus acquired should, in so short a time, have been sup- 
planted by so ardent a love for the Negro of the South as to 
desire his manumission at the risk of breaking up the Con- 
federacy. No; it really looked more like the renewed ex- 
pression of that old grudge which the Eastern States have 
for so many years nourished against the South. 

In 1828, a Mr. Arthur Tappan subscribed, with the aid of 
friends in Boston, sufficient funds to establish a newspaper in 
New York, called the "Journal of Commerce," whose object 
was to promote the borrowed English theory of Abolition. 
Its editor was a certain David Hale, an auctioneer of Boston, 
and a teacher in the Presbyterian Sunday-school there. At 
the same juncture, the Baltimore "Genius of Emancipation" 
fell into the hands of another Abolitionist, named W Lloyd 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 147 

Garrison. This individual was the grandson of what was 
known as a "Tory" during our Revolutionary War,- and who, 
at the Peace, was compelled to fly the country to Nova Scotia, 
whence his widowed daughter and her only son returned, 
some years after, to Boston, to seek a livelihood. The young 
Garrison readily caught up the doctrine of Abolition, as 
most congenial to his English antecedents and education, and 
set to work with baleful energy to urge its propagation, 
fraught with so many dangers to the country of his adoption. 
On assuming the editorship of the Baltimore paper, he 
instantly assailed both Colonization and Emancipation as 
only obstructions to Abolition, and openly avowed that the 
Union of the States was equally an obstacle to Abolition. 
By some it was supposed that this treasonable denunciation 
of the Union was out of deference to the memory of his 
Tory grandfather, who had done all he could to prevent it. 

It may easily be imagined that the startling proclamation 
of such ultra views as these, led rapidly to a complete revo- 
lution of feeling at the South. The excitement against 
Garrison spread far and wide. The Manumission Society of 
North Carolina demanded his imprisonment, and the State 
of Georgia set a price upon his head. The emancipation 
societies at the South began to suspend their operations and 
to break up. The Baltimore journal mentioned, it was 
necessary to suppress. The people of the South generally, 
becoming more and more alarmed at the aggressive attitude 
of the Abolitionists, began to ponder over some means of 
defence. 

In the year 1830, the same Garrison founded a new journal 
in Boston, called "The Liberator," whence he propounded his 
extreme views in the most extravagant language. In the fol- 
lowing year, the "New England Anti-slavery Society" was 
formed. This was followed in due course by the "American 
Anti-slavery Society," under the leadership of Messrs. Garri- 



148 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

son, Tappan, and Birney. The Sunday-schools of the Eastern 
States became active coadjutors in the same cause. These 
societies adopted precisely .the same tactics as their British 
prototypes. They circulated tracts and books, full of inflam- 
matory appeals. Highly-colored engravings too, representing 
the Black undergoing every kind of torture, were distributed 
for those who could not read. These were meant more espe- 
cially to excite the Blacks at the South, and were sent 
through the mails. These proceedings were considered, at 
the time, so dangerous to the peace of the community and to 
the integrity of the Union, that popular indignation fre- 
quently broke out into riot. In New York, in 1832, the 
dwelling of Arthur Tappan and the church of Dr. Cox were 
both demolished by a mob. Many influential citizens sanc- 
tioned these violent demonstrations of public feeling, and the 
well-known Editor of the " Courier and Enquirer," Mr. 
James Watson Webb, boasted of his share in this vindication 
of Southern rights.* 

The Abolitionists of Boston, meanwhile, continued their 
operations with all the ardor of their puritanical descent. 
Garrison was sent to England, to obtain funds, by the Anti- 
slavery Societies ; and in 1834 he returned home with Mr. 
George Thompson, a Member of Parliament at that time, 
and an Abolition lecturer. This led to so violent an outcry, 
that Thompson, alarmed for his safety, went back to Eng- 
land. A new mode of excitement was then devised by the 
Abolitionists, who got up a clamor against South Carolina 
for detaining free Blacks who came into her ports. Massa- 
chusetts claimed that free Blacks were her citizens, and that 
as such they had a right to go to South Carolina ; but as she 
made no complaint against Ohio, Illinois, and other States 
who also excluded free Blacks, it was evident that she sought 

* This gentleman has since changed his ground, and is now a pro- 
minent leader of the Anti-slavery party. 



AND REPOSITORY OP USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 149 

a quarrel with South Carolina, for the very purpose of 
spreading the Abolition infection. 

A Mr. Hoar was sent by Massachusetts as an agent to 
Charleston to make a formal complaint of her alleged griev- 
ance, and, as was anticipated, Mr. Hoar was summarily dis- 
missed. Upon this the Abolitionists professed great indig- 
nation, and the Legislature was appealed to for a measure of 
retaliation, which was soon got up under the title of a "Per- 
sonal Liberty Bill," which was designed, under a transparent 
plea, to obstruct the restoration of fugitive Blacks. 

Up to this time, Abolition had been discussed merely as a 
moral question, but the agitation^had gained such strength 
among its unsuspecting converts, that it was thought high 
time by its designing leaders to carry it into the political 
arena, where they anticipated making it a stepping-stone to 
power and emolument. 

It will be seen in the sequel that these ingenious schemers 
were doomed to disappointment, and that the spolia optima 
of the agitation they began were destined to be gathered by 
the hand of the professional politician, leaving but "a barren 
sceptre in their gripe." 

In 1838, the Abolition party was too weak and too ignor- 
ant of political strategy to dare to take the field in person ; 
therefore, they began coquetting with the prominent politi- 
cians of the day. Mr. Marcy and Mr. Seward were, at that 
time, the candidates of the two rival parties for Governor of 
the State of New York, and perhaps the two most influential 
men of the North. The occasion was thought opportune by 
Messrs. Smith and Jay, the New York sponsors for the un- 
toward bantling of Abolition, to put these gentlemen to the 
test. It happened that there existed a statute in New York, 
called the "Sojournment Law," which allowed a slaveholder 
to brine; his Black servants with him, and remain there nine 
months, without prejudice to his rights; for it had been de- 



150 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

cided in the Federal Courts that a slave taken voluntarily 
into a Free State, could not be recovered. When Mr. 
Seward was interrogated in relation to this law, he sustained 
it as "a becoming act of hospitality to Southern visitors." 
Mr. Marcy made no reply. Mr. Seward, however, changed 
his views afterwards on this subject, and refused, in 1840, 
while Governor, to restore a fugitive slave, on the requisition 
of Virginia. 

The evil results of this sectional issue were foreseen by 
many States; and among others Ohio, in 1840, passed reso- 
lutions in her Legislsture to the effect that " Slavery was an 
institution recognized by the Constitution," and that "the 
unlawful, unwise, and unconstitutional interference of the 
fanatical Abolitionists of the North with the institutions of 
the South, were highly criminal." The violent proceedings 
of the Northern Abolitionists did not escape the attention of 
the South, where they created not only alarm, but aroused a 
deep and natural feeling of indignation. The change of sen- 
timent that had occurred may be seen in an act of the State 
of Alabama, to the effect that "all free Blacks remaining in 
the State after August 1, 1840, should be enslaved." 

At the very close of 1839, a handful of Abolitionists met 
in Warsaw, N. Y., and decided formally to transform their 
doctrine from a moral into a political question ; and they set 
to work at once, on a political organization. Determined to 
eschew any affiliation with the parties of the day, they 
selected one of their own band, Mr. Birney, as a candidate 
for the Presidency of the United States. It was now evident 
to all dispassionate observers, that the motives of the founders 
of Abolition were not so much the emancipation of the Blacks, 
as their own elevation to place and power. It is clear enough 
the North regarded them with just suspicion at that day, 
for in the Federal election of 1840, Birney received but 7000 
votes 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 151 

The agitation of the Slavery question received a new 
stimulus at this period, from the discussions awakened by the 
revolt of Texas. This fine country had once formed part of 
Louisiana, but was ceded by France to Spain, and then 
became a part of Mexico. In 1836, an insurrection, headed 
by Americans, broke out, and was soon followed by the inde- 
pendence of Texas. Speculations now ran high in the price 
of her lands, and the project was broached of reannexing her 
to the United States. The celebrated Daniel Webster, among 
others, favored this scheme ; but he was afterwards induced 
to change his views and- oppose it. Just as in the case of 
Louisiana, in 1805, the New England States resisted the 
Annexation of Texas, during the Presidency of Mr. Tyler, 
on the same pretext of extending slavery, but on the real 
ground of jealousy of the South. The leading politicians of 
the day were sorely embarrassed whether to support Annexa- 
tion or not ; and by opposing it, Mr. Clay lost his election in 
1844; and for the same reason, Mr. Van Buren failed 
to obtain his renomination by the Democratic party. The 
difficulty was terminated by the admission of Texas, March 
3, 1845, but on the agreement that four States should be 
formed out of the territory, besides the one existing, and 
that the States so formed south of the line 36° 30' should be 
admitted with or without slavery, as their inhabitants should 
decide, but that slavery should not exist north of that line.* 

A temporary lull followed ; but the Slavery question was 
soon again evoked, to gratify a political grudge. The rejec- 
tion-of Mr. Van Buren as the Democratic candidate in 1844, 
by Southern influence, in consequence of his opposition to 
Texas, led him, from motives of irritation, to raise up a new 

* The attempt, in 1846, to foist upon the country, to the injury of 
the South, the infamous " Wilmot Proviso" — a Bill to prevent the 
right of Southerners to carry their slave property into the Territory 
acquired from Mexico. The Bill passed the House, but was defeated 
in the Senate. 



152 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

party in New York, on the cry of " Free Soil, or no more 
Slave States." This act was a violation of the agreement 
made with the South on the admission of Texas, and was 
frowned upon by the Democratic party ; but the issue started 
by Mr. Van Buren was successful enough to divide the party 
in the State of New York, and to give the election to the 
Northern party. This incensed and alarmed the South, who 
were at last pacified by the Compromise measures of 1850, 
which, however, were stoutly opposed by Mr. W H. Seward, 
who had become already the chosen and wily representative 
of the Anti-slavery sentiments of the North. 

I may as well observe here, what I have already stated 
elsewhere, that the politicians of the North found themselves 
in the sad predicament of having no political principles to 
advocate. The settlement of the Tariff question in '46, on 
the demand of the commercial interests of the North, left 
them wholly destitute of any policy by which they might 
hope to ride into power. Under these circumstances, it was 
natural they should follow with a wistful eye the labors of 
the Abolitionists, who had certainly succeeded in working up 
the feelings of the North to a lively pitch of excitement on 
Southern Slavery. They were not, of course, disposed to 
borrow the extreme views of these zealots, which were wholly 
incompatible with the existence of the Union ; but they 
thought they might venture to utilize to their advantage the 
Anti-slavery sentiments that had been so skilfully aroused. 
They set about this very adroitly by raising a cry against 
extending slave territory, which, it was supposed, would 
please the susceptibilities of the North, and not too much 
exasperate the South. Thus we find that eminent politician, 
Mr. Seward, already at work in 1850, sowing the seeds of 
the new Anti-slavery party of the North, by opposing the 
healing policy of Mr. Clay, on the ground of its fostering 
lavery and increasing its area. 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 153 

One of the prominent measures of the Compromise of 1850, 
was the new Fugitive Slave Law, which Daniel Webster 
declared to be far more favorable to the Blacks than that 
recommended by Washington, in 1787 Yet it was seized 
upon by the cunning of the Anti-slavery politicians to keep 
up the subsiding agitation, and several of the Legislatures of 
the Northern States were induced to pass " Personal Liberty 
Bills," in imitation of the example set by Massachusetts. 

I must not omit to remark that the Abolitionists still kept 
on the even tenor of their way, and were as active as ever in 
promulgating their impracticable theory by secretly circulat- 
ing tracts, books and pictures, harping on slavery and all its 
fancied horrors. They still kept possession of the political 
field, and still hoped to make a ladder of their hobby by 
which to ascend to power. In 1852, they dropped Mr. 
Birney, and selected for their Presidential candidate Mr. 
Hale, of New Hampshire. He received 157,000 votes, 
against the 7000 thrown for Birney, in 1840. 

Among other ingenious modes of excitement, a discussion 
was regularly kept alive at the North as to the citizenship of 
free Blacks. Several States bestowed the suffrage upon 
them, as a practical proof of their right to rank as citizens. 
This controversy was rather inflamed than otherwise, by a 
decision of the Federal Supreme Court, in the Dred Scott 
case, 1853, which settled that no Blacks are citizens of the 
United States. In 1854, the Slavery question reappeared in 
Congress and the action of the North on this occasion was 
pregnant with serious consequences. Two new territories of 
the West were pronounced sufficiently occupied to render 
legislation necessary, and a bill to create a territorial govern- 
ment in Kansas and Nebraska, was reported by Mr. Douglas, 
of Illinois. His bill contained a clause to repeal the famous 
Missouri line of 36° 30', running south of the territories in 
question. This line was the basis of compromise in 1820, 



154 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

and was again a means of adjusting the dispute that arose on 
the admission of Texas, in 1845. The constitutionality of 
this line was, however, more than doubtful, for the reason 
that Congress never had any power conferred on it by the 
Constitution to legislate on slavery ; nor was it at all neces- 
sary, since individual States could retain or exclude slavery, 
according to their pleasure. Besides, the line in question 
was really a nullity, because slavery was so unprofitable to 
the north of it that it would never be carried there. It was 
only to the south of this line that the cotton culture made 
slavery a profit and a necessity. Hence the South made no 
objection to its repeal, in 1854 ; but it is difficult to perceive 
what motive Mr. Douglas could have had in proposing this 
repeal, unless it was merely to fan the glowing embers of the 
Slavery question. 

No sooner was this Missouri line revoked, than a prompt 
and significant movement was made in the New England 
States. Emigrant Aid Societies were formed, as already 
mentioned; and settlers for Kansas, one of the territories 
just organized, were lustily summoned as recruits in the new 
crusade against slavery, and funds in the way of bounty were 
liberally distributed. This unusual means to stimulate emi- 
gration was designed to secure Kansas as a Free State, by 
obtaining a majority for the Northern people. Such an 
attempt, made with demonstrations of vehement hostility to 
the South, was sure to provoke anger and resistance. This, 
of course, was calculated upon by the Anti-slavery propa- 
ganda, and they were not disappointed. The Slave State of 
Missouri, directly adjoining Kansas, was not disposed to be 
forestalled, and, as it were, forced out of their legal share to 
territory in such close proximity; so they did their best to 
encourage emigration too, but the slaveholders were naturally 
chary to carry their Blacks with them, as they were sure to 
be tempted away. As a matter of course, it was impossible 



AND REPOSITORY CF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 155 

for the people of the two opposite sections, in their intem- 
perate state of mind, to live long in peace together. Colli- 
sions occurred, and occasional loss of life ensued. The Abo- 
litionists were eagerly waiting for some such news as this, for 
it was rightly anticipated that a conflict, sooner or later, was 
inevitable. 

When the looked-for intelligence at last arrived, a wild and 
furious shriek for "bleeding Kansas" vibrated in a thou- 
sand echoes through all the valleys of New England. The 
organs of the Abolitionists teemed with the most discordant 
appeals to the passions of the people, and nothing but im- 
precations of the most startling description were launched 
against the " Border Ruflians," as the settlers from Missouri 
were forthwith christened. Public meetings were called in 
the Eastern States, and the pulpit soon became a rostrum for 
clerical agitators. Subscriptions were rapidly set on foot to 
buy arms and ammunition for the sacred defenders of anti- 
slavery in Kansas, whose brows were encircled with the halo 
of martyrdom. Speculators in " Sharpe's rifles " joined iu 
the well-sustained chorus of the Abolitionists, and a consid- 
erable profit was the result. At a public meeting in New 
Haven, a well-known Abolitionist, Rev. H. Ward Beecher, 
of Brooklyn, and brother of the authoress of " Uncle Tom's 
Cabin," aided by his presence and language to swell the 
clamor fast rising in the North. He desired his name to be 
subscribed for " twenty-five Sharpe's rifles," and announced 
he would collect the money to pay for them, in his church, 
the following Sabbath, which was done. 

Such ingenious modes as these, and so skilfully handled, 
could not fail to excite the sympathies and stir the passions 
of any community. Ever since 1828, the Abolition party 
had been laboriously engaged in sapping the mind of the 
North on the subject of Black Slavery ; nor must it be for- 
gotten that they appealed to something more than its philan- 



158 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

needed, ami raised the cry of " Freedom to Slaves." To his 
astonishment, no doubt, the affrighted blacks ran to their 
masters for protection, and some were shot in seeking to es- 
cape. This nefarious attempt was quelled by the arrest of 
Brown and his confederates, and their subsequent trial and 
execution. 

One thing was proved by the utter failure of this daring 
outrage, for it showed that the blacks were contented with 
their homes, and desired not the emancipation of the sword. 
Another thing, if not quite so clear, at least looked ominous. 
This madman, Brown, had been known as an efficient instru- 
ment in the hands of the anti-slavery party of New England ; 
and it was, therefore, a matter of conjecture at the South 
how far he was incited to this fearful attempt against their 
very existence. Had they not some reason to think the act 
met the approval of the Abolitionists of the North, when 
300 bells tolled for the fate of Brown, and when the organs 
of the party honored his memory, while affecting to disap- 
prove his conduct? 

This event sank deep into the mind and heart of the 
Southern States. They were led to believe, for the first time, 
that the ultra wing of the Republican party contemplated 
the confiscation of their property and the destruction of their 
lives. 

Another incident occurred in the summer of 1860, which 
deepened their conviction that the Northern States had en- 
tered into a dark conspiracy to desolate their land with fire 
and sword. It was discovered that a book, called the " Im- 
pending Crisis," was being secretly circulated all over the 
North as a " campaign document." The purport of this 
volume was to show, by assertion, as well as by figures, that 
the free labor of the North was more profitable than the 
black labor of the South. The tone of the book was violent 
in the extreme. We will add a few extracts, which will en- 
able the reader to form a correct opinion of the character and 
object of the work : 

"Slavery is a great moral, social, civil, and political evil, to be 
got rid of at the earliest practical period" — (page 168.) 

" Three-quarters of a century hence, if the South retains slavery, 
which God forbid ! she will be to the North what Poland is to Russia, 
Cuba to Spain, and Ireland to England"— (p. 163.) 



156 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

thropy, when they raised the cry of "No more Slave Terri- 
tory," which simply meant that all that vast extent of country 
stretching from the Mississippi to the Rocky Mountains, 
should be given up to Northern emigration. It was natural, 
certainly, that so palatable a doctrine should be acceptable at 
the North; but just as natural that it should be unwelcome 
at the South, whose equal claims were so unceremoniously 
ignored. 

The harvest so industriously tilled by the Abolitionists, 
was now ripe ; and the leaders of the old Whig, or Northern 
party, experienced, astute, and with an organization extend- 
ing over the entire North, stepped forward, and brushing 
from their path the noisy fanatics who had sown the seed, 
they gathered for their own garners the luxuriant crop of 
anti-slavery sentiment now sprouting all over the North. 
They met in convention in Philadelphia, June, 1856, and 
unfurling the flag of the " Republican Party," made, for the 
first time, a sectional issue the basis of party action. They 
selected for their Presidential candidate Mr. John C. Fre- 
mont, known in the country as an officer of the army, but 
without any political antecedents. It was thought judicious 
not to nominate a politician too closely identified with the 
anti-slavery movement, lest the possible consequences might 
alarm the " sober second thought " of the North. Thus ac- 
coutred, the Republican party went to the polls, November, 
1856, and brought off a vote of 1,334,553. They were de- 
feated by the Democratic party, which was now the only link 
between North and South ; but the Republican leaders felt 
quite sanguine that, with the tactics their experience would 
suggest, they would carry off the Presidential prize in 1860. 
It was thus that the moral question as to the sin of slavery, 
borrowed from England by our Abolitionists, and kept alive 
by their address till the North was thoroughly infected by it, 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 157 

was, at last, converted into a political question and made a 
party issue. 

The Republican politicians felt a dread, lest the Northern 
masses, who had conscientiously imbibed the anti-slavery 
poison, might force them reluctantly to carry their unconsti- 
tutional theories into legislation. It is certain they had their 
misgivings, but there was no alternative. Without a princi- 
ple or a measure to brandish against their political opponents, 
there was nothing but to abandon the hope of office, or to do 
battle with the dangerous arm they had taken from the hands 
of the Abolitionists. Ambition outweighed patriotism ; and 
during the four years just elapsed, the country has been dis- 
tracted with the din of the anti-slavery propaganda. Orators, 
writers, lecturers, and preachers, have all joined in the melee, 
and their united efforts were directed to the apotheosis of the 
negro, and the excommunication of the slaveholder. Every 
church, public hall, and hustings through the North, has 
rung with anathemas against the vilified South ; and it is 
not strange, therefore, that people accustomed to this un- 
broken strain of vituperation, should begin to believe, at 
last, that slavery was quite as hideous as it was painted. 

In October, 1859, an event occurred which amazed the 
whole country. We allude to the invasion of the State of 
Virginia, by John Brown and his retinue of men. This man 
Brown had figured in " bleeding Kansas " as a daring ring- 
leader of the anti-slavery bands that had contended for the 
mastery there. When these bloody contests subsided, he 
was reduced to inaction ; and he chafed at the loss of the 
stern excitement congenial to his fierce nature. Whether it 
was fanaticism or ambition that inspired him, no one can 
say ; but he conceived the horrible project of setting on foot 
a servile insurrection. Followed by a handful of desperate 
men, he suddenly entered the State of Virginia, seized the 
arsenal of the Federal Government, to obtain the arms he 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 159 

"On our banner is inscribed — No Cooperation with Slaveholders 
in Politics ; no Fellowship with them in Religion ; no Affiliation with 
them in Society. No Recognition of Pro-slavery men, except as 
Ruffians, Outlaws, and Criminals" — (p. 156.) 

" We believe it is, as it ought to be, the desire, the determination, 
and the destiny of the Republican party to give the death-blow to 
slavery."— (p. 234.) 

"In any event, come what will, transpire what may, the institu- 
tion of slavery must be abolished." — (p. 180.) 

"We are determined to abolish slavery at all hazards — -in defiance 
of all the opposition, of whatever nature, it is possible for the 
Slavocrats to bring against us. Of this they may take due notice, 
and govern themselves accordingly." — (p. 149.) 

" It is our honest conviction that all the Pro-slavery Slaveholders 
deserve to be at once reduced to a parallel with the basest criminals 
that lie fettered within the cells of our public prisons." — (p. 158.) 

"Shall we pat the bloodhounds of slavery? Shall we fee the 
curs of slavery ? Shall we pay the whelps of slavery ? No, never." — 
(p. 329.) 

" Our purpose is as firmly fixed as the eternal pillars of heaven ; 
we have determined to abolish slavery, and, so help us God ! abolish 
it we will."— (p. 187.) 

The volume containing the above quotations, not by any 
means the most bitter, was endorsed by 68 members of Con- 
gress of the Republican party, whose names were given for 
publication. The South, under manifestations like these, 
felt they had a right to infer that, if a party making such 
declarations of hostility were elected to power by the North, 
they must either consent to the early abolition of Black 
Slavery, or retain it by seceding from the Union. 

When the British Government emancipated the Blacks in 
her colonies, she acted with the strictest commercial equity; 
but the book in question repudiates any compensation to the 
"curs and whelps of slavery." One more extract: 

"The black god of slavery, which the South has worshipped for 
237 years."— (p. 163.) 

Now, the writer is ignorant that the South protested for 
years, first, against the mother country, and, next, against 
New England, importing slaves within her borders. How- 
ever, the object of the book was to inflame the mind of the 
North against the South, and therefore falsehood was just as 
good as truth. 

In April, 1860, the delegates of the Democratic party met 



160 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

in convention at Charleston, South Carolina, to make their 
nomination for the Presidency. The Northern wing of the 
party proposed Senator Douglas as the most eligible candi- 
date at the North, from his doctrine of " Popular Sov- 
ereignty."* The Southern wing objected, as they considered 
said doctrine only a concession to the Anti-slavery dogma. 
Mr. Douglas did not withdraw his name, and a rupture of 
the party ensued. The Northern delegates nominated Mr. 
Douglas, in Baltimore, June 18 ; and on the same occasion, 
the Southern delegates nominated Vice-President Breck- 
inridge. 

This schism doubled the chances of the Republican party, 
which met in convention to select their candidate at Chi- 
cago, Illinois, May, 1860. It was generally supposed that 
Mr. W H. Seward, the acknowledged leader of the Anti- 
slavery party at the North, an able and wily statesman, would 
be its chosen champion in the electoral lists about to open ; 
but, to the surprise of all, an almost unknown politician of 
the West, Mr. Abraham Lincoln, was selected as its standard- 
bearer. 

On the 6th of November, 1860, the long agitation on the 
slavery question, that began in 1803, ended with the elec- 
tion to the Presidency of Abraham Lincoln, the representa- 
tive of the Republican party, but which contained within 
its bowels, like the Trojan horse of old, the armed men of 
the Abolition party. Shortly after this event, Gov. Andrew, 
of Massachusetts, declared at a public meeting, that " the 
election of Mr. Lincoln was only the first step towards 
forcible emancipation." 

ABSTRACT 

The whole territory of the States, North and South, was 
originally slaveholding — English, Spanish, and French. Not 
from any local law, but from the laws of the mother 
country. 

Slaves were regarded only as property in all the thirteen 

* Mr. Douglas proposed giving the people of a Territory the right 
to retain or exclude slavery, instead of reserving the decision till 
the Territory was admitted as a State, the practice hitherto. 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 161 

States that formed the Union ; since it would have been a 
manifest absurdity for the Slaveholders who made the Decla- 
ration of Independence, to declare " all men were born free 
and equal," had they not considered their slaves as property. 

In forming the Union, the thirteen Slave States conferred 
upon the Federal Government the power to tax slave prop- 
erty ; to protect it from foreigners, as well on the national 
territories as at sea, and also from domestic escape ; and con- 
ferred no other power, either to prohibit or to extend it. 

The North clung to the profits of the Slave Trade as long 
as possible, and attacked the slave system when they were 
deprived of those profits. 

The territory that was once all slave, has become free ; — 
1st, by the Ordinance of 1787, prohibiting slaves north of 
the Ohio ; 2d, by eight Northern States abolishing slavery in 
their borders; 3d, by the Missouri Compromise of 1820, 
prohibiting slaves north of 36° 30' ; 4th, the act admitting 
Texas reenacting that line. Thus the North has driven 
slaves out of half the Territories of the United States, show- 
ing a constant and large aggression upon the South. 

The duty of the Government is undoubtedly to protect the 
property upon the Territories, until people there settled form 
their own laws. / 

The agitation of the slave question grew originally out of 
the chagrin of New England, at being deprived of the Slave 
Trade and its profits. It was prolonged by the mutual irri- 
tation that the opposition of Massachusetts to the purchase 
of Louisiana occasioned. 

Emancipation made steady progress in all the States, until 
Abolition forced the Slaveholders upon the defensive. 

Abolition made little progress, until unscrupulous partisans 
coquetted with it for party issues. 

The question of the power of the Government to exclude 
slavery from the Territories, has been blended with the moral 
question as to the " sin of slavery." 

The cry of " Free Soil " was raised in 1848, by Mr. Van 
Buren, to avenge his non-nomination by the South, at Balti- 
more. 

The compromise measures of 1850, were carried by the 
influence of Henry Clay. 



162 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

Violation of these compromises, by the " Personal Liberty 
Bills" of the Northern States, soon followed. 

Repeal of the Missouri Compromise, in 1854. 

Attempt, by the Abolition party, to make Kansas a Free 
State by force, which was resisted by the South. 

Rise of Republican party, under the lead of Mr. W H. 
Seward, and its defeat in 1856. 

Violent agitation of the slavery question at the North, fol- 
lowed by the invasion of Virginia by John Brown, in 1859, 
and the circulation of the Helper Book, in 1860. 

The theory of a "Higher Law" at the North, to justify 
resistance to the Constitution and laws of Congress, has be- 
gotten the Higher Law of Self-preservation at the South, to 
justify resistance to a dominant party, which embraces the 
"sin of slavery" among its tenets. 

The Southern States have been for nearly sixty years the 
object of political persecution by the North, which they have 
borne with patience and returned with kindness. In 1820, 
the North entered into a compromise, which has been broken. 
In 1850 they made new agreements, which have since been 
violated. In 1860 a legal majority elected a President on the 
"Platform" that "Slavery must be restricted to its present 
limits." Outraged in our rights, and threatened in our in- 
terests, what course is left the South ? To fold their arms 
and await more injury and endure more obloquy? Would 
this check the aggressions of the North till both North and 
South were swallowed up in the vortex of ruin ? It is clear 
that the South have no alternative. Far better they should 
have abandoned the Confederacy than remain only to engage 
in bitter feuds that compromise the dignity of the country, 
and sow the seeds of undying hatred. 

In 1789, according to our view, the South entered into a 
civil compact with the North, on certain conditions and 
guarantees. These have been broken, and the South re- 
turns, in her opinion, to her original sovereignty.* Even 



* This principle of sovereignty was repeatedly asserted by New 
England during the last war, and on January 4, 1815, a report of a 
committee was made in the Hartford Convention, in favor of imme- 
diate secession from the Union, on the plea that the Constitution had 
been violated by the Embargo Act, and the ordering of the militia 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 163 

were it otherwise — were it true that the South owed alle- 
giance to the Federal Government — still, she asserts our own 
Declaration of Independence in 1776, and the present prac- 
tice of Europe justify all people in repudiating a government 
which assails their rights and sacrifices their best interests. 
If the Northern States do not acknowledge these truths, 
then are they false to their origin, and seek to substitute for 
a government of opinion the tyranny of force. The South 
will adhere to its right of secession at all hazards, and at 
every sacrifice. 

A few general considerations, and we conclude our narra- 
tive. After tracing the course of events recorded in the 
foregoing pages, the questions naturally arise — What has 
been the result ? What have the Abolitionists gained ? The 
answers may be briefly summed up as follows : 

1. They have put an end to the emancipation which orig- 
inated among the real philanthropists of the South In their 
wild and fanatical attempts they have counteracted the very 
object at which they have aimed. In the language, of an- 
other, " The worst foes of the black race are those who have 
intermeddled in their behalf. By nature, the most affec- 
tionate and loyal of races beneath the sun, they are also the 
most helpless ; and no calamity can befal them greater than 
the loss of that protection they enjoy under this patriarchal 
system. Indeed, the experiment has been tried of precipi- 
tating them upon a freedom which they know not how to 
enjoy; and the dismal results are before the world in sta- 
tistics that may well excite astonishment."* 

into the service of the United States. The report defended the right 
of secession as follows : 

"That Acts of Congress, in violation of the Constitution, are ab- 
solutety void, is an undeniable position. . But in cases of 

deliberate, dangerous, and palpable infractions of the Constitution, 
affecting the sovereignty of a State and liberties of the people, it is not 
only the right, but the duty, of such State to interpose its authority 
for their protection, in the manner best calculated to secure that end. 
When emergencies occur, which are either beyond the reach of the 
judicial tribunals, or too pressing to admit of the delay incident to their 
forms, States which have no common umpire, must be their own judges 
and execute their own decisions. The States should so use their power 
as effectually to protect their own sovereignty and the rights and lib- 
erties of their citizens." 

* "Compared with European, laborers, the Black lives like a 



164 

In striking confirmation of the above, we extract from the 
mortuary records of the last year the following cases of 
Negro slaves who lived to over a hundred years : 

1860 — February 2. Female slave, Virginia 105 

I860— " 15. Milly Lamar, Georgia 135 

I860— March 25. Sam, Georgia 140 

1860— April 17. Glasgow, Kentucky 112 

" With the fairest portions of the earth in their possession, 
and with the advantage of a long discipline as the cultiva- 
tors of the soil, their constitutional indolence has converted 
the most beautiful islands of the sea into howling wastes. 
It is not too much to say, that if the South should, at this 
moment, surrender every slave, the wisdom of the entire 
world, united in solemn council, could not solve the question 
of their disposal. Freedom would be their doom. Every 
Southern master knows this truth and feels its power." 

2. Touch the negro, and you touch cotton — the mainspring 
that keeps the machinery of the world in motion. In teach- 
ing slaves to entertain wild and dangerous notions of liberty, 
the Abolitionists have thus jeopardized the commerce of the 
country and the manufacturing interests of the civilized 
world. They have likewise destroyed confidence. In short, 
all the kind relations that have ever existed between the 
North and the South have been interrupted, and a barrier 
erected, which, socially, commercially, and politically, has 
separated the heretofore united interests of the two sections. 

3. They have held out a Canadian Utopia, where they 
have taught the slaves in their ignorance to believe they 
could enjoy a life of ease and luxury, and having cut them 
off from a race of kind masters, and separated them from 
comfortable homes, left the deluded beings, incapable of self- 
support, upon an uncongenial soil, to live in a state of 
bestiality and misery, and die cursing the Abolitionists as 
the authors of their wretchedness. 

prince. He has his cabin generally neat and clean, and always 
weather-proof. He has likewise his own garden-patch, over which 
he is lord paramount. He is well fed, well lodged, well clothed, and 
never overworked. His holidays are numerous, and enjoyed with 
infinite gusto. Sleek, happy, and contented, the Black lives to a 
great age. The Slaveholder finds it to his interest to treat his Ne- 
groes liberally, and takes every means to make them healthy and 
contented." 



AND REPOSITORY OP USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 165 

4. They have led a portion of the people of the North, as 
well as of the South, to examine the question in all its 
aspects, and to plant themselves upon the broad principle 
that that form of government which recognizes the institu- 
tion of slavery in the United States, is the best, the condi- 
tion of the two races, white and black being considered, for 
the development, progress, and happiness of each. In other 
words, to regard servitude as a blessing to the negro, and, 
under proper and philanthropic restrictions, necessary to their 
preservation and the prosperity of the country. 

5. Step by step they have built up a party upon an issue 
which, has led to a dissolution of the Union. They have 
scattered the seeds of Abolitionism until a majority of the 
voters of the Free States have become animated by a fixed 
purpose to prevent the further growth of the slave power. 

The power of the North has been consolidated, and, for 
the first time in the history of the country, it is wielded as a 
sectional weapon against the interests of the South. The 
Government is now in the hands of men elected by Northern 
votes, who regard slavery as a curse and a crime, and they 
will have the means necessary to accomplish their purpose. 

The utterances that have heretofore come from the rostrum, 
or from irresponsible associations of individuals, now come 
from the throne. " Clad with the sanctities of office, with 
the anointing oil poured upon the monarch's head, the decree 
has gone forth that the institution of Southern slavery shall 
be constrained within assigned limits. Though Nature and 
Providence should send forth its branches like the banyan 
tree, to take root in congenial soil, here is a power superior to 
both, that says it shall wither and die within its own charmed 

circle. 

Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, says : 

" I believe this Government cannot .endure permanently, half slave 
and half free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolved ; I do not 
expect the house to fall, but I do expect that it will cease to be di- 
vided It will become all one thing, or all the other. Either the 
opponents of slavery will arrest the further spread of it, and place 
it where the public mind shall rest in the belief that it is in the 
course of ultimate extinction, or its advocates will push it forward 
until it shall become alike lawful in all the States, old as well as new, 
North as well as South." 

" I have always hated slavery as much as any Abolitionist. 1 have 



166 

always been an old line Whig. I have always hated it, and I always 
believed it in a course of ultimate extinction. If I were in Congress, 
and a vote should come up on a question whether slavery should be 
prohibited in a new Territory, in spite of the Dred Scott decision, I 
would vote that it should." 

" Abolitionism and fanaticism is a blood-hound that never 
bolts its track when it has once lapped blood. The elevation 
of their candidate is far from being the consummation of 
their aims. It is only the beginning of that consummation ; 
and if all history be not a lie, there will be coercion enough 
till the end of the besrinnins; is reached, and the dreadful 
banquet of slaughter and ruin shall glut the appetite." 

And now the end has come. The divided house, -which 
Lincoln boastfully said would not fall, has fallen. The ruins 
of the Union are at the feet as well of those who loved and 
cherished it as of those who labored for its destruction. The 
Constitution is at length a nullity. Fanaticism and Abolition 
has its apotheosis in Abe Lincoln. 



SOUTHERN AND NORTHERN COMMERCE. 

The exports of merchandise from the United States, in 
1859, were as follows : 

Merchandise of Southern origin $198,389,351 

" of Northern origin 78,217,202 

Total Merchandise exported $276,606,553 

This large amount, nearly $200,000,000, of Southern pro- 
duce, may realize abroad, with freights and profits, some 
$225,000,000, for which goods are taken in return ; and the 
duty of 25 per cent, on these, amounts to $56,000,000, 
which may be regarded as a bounty on Northern manufac- 
tures as against those of England, where the Southern pro- 
ducts are mostly sold. 

That such a system should build up an immense manufac- 
turing interest at the North, was inevitable. The Federal 
census of 1850 gave the value of manufactures annually pro- 
duced, as follows : 

Capital in Manufactures. Production. 

North §438,249,677 $854,526,679 

South 94,995,674 164,579,937 

Total Manufactures $533,245,351 $1,019,106,616 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 167 

The North also imports for the South, and the value of 
the whole charged to the South is enhanced in the ratio of 
the duty, viz., 25 per oent. The North may be said to take 
all the Southern products, and pay in goods, at 25^>er cent, 
advance over the English prices. 

The influx of emigrants from abroad, with large capital, 
aided that development. 

The financial operations of the agricultural South, where 
$300,000,000 worth of crops are annually moved to market, 
necessarily centred in New York, where the goods are mostly 
imported, and Eastern manufactures are distributed. New 
York has also become the chief point of connection with 
Europe, and therefore all Southern travellers come there to 
embark. These various causes draw a large Southern ex- 
penditure to the North, which is not in any way reciprocated. 

All the operations of Finance, Banking, Insurance, Bro- 
kerage, Commissions, Profits on Imports, and on Domestic 
Manufactures, etc., inure to the North, on the basis of the 
agriculture of the South. These items have been estimated 
at an aggregate of $231,000,000 per annum, drawn for 
Northern account from Southern industry. It is not, there- 
fore, a matter of surprise that the North has accumulated 
wealth much faster than the South. But it is a matter of 
surprise that the North, under these circumstances, should 
upbraid the South with her comparative poverty. 

The North takes of the South 750,000 bales of cotton, 
worth $50,000,000, per annum ; which it works up into 
cotton goods, to send back to the South. That quantity of 
cotton will make 1,035,000,000 yards of cotton cloth, for 
which $100,000,000 is charged; but England will sell the 
same quantity for $75,000,000, and if the South makes it 
herself, it may be done for $60,000,000. Southern econo- 
mists can see that, to make this great saving, nothing else is 
necessary than to keep at home the capital that has been 
drained off to the North. 

The Southern States, including Virginia, Kentucky, 
Georgia, Tennessee, North Carolina, and most of South Caro- 
lina, are the finest grain-growing countries in the world ; and 
were not cotton, tobacco, and rice more profitable, those 
States might export corn, wheat, and other cereals, in large 
quantities. The slopes of the Alleghanies on both sides are 



168 



THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 



as fertile, and as well suited for the production of breadstuffs 
of all kinds, as any lands in the country. They are covered 
with beautiful farms, the soil and the-climate are alike favor- 
able, and' it is the height of absurdity to talk of the poverty 
of the Southern States. To some extent, at present, they 
cultivate other crops, which they exchange for food, because 
they can do so with advantage to themselves; but throw them 
on their own resources, and cut them off from Northern and 
Western supplies, and they can produce not only enough for 
themselves, but compete with the North in exportation. 

In the interior of the Southern States, almost every de- 
scription of food abounds, and is far cheaper than in the 
Northern and Eastern States. It is only a strip of the sea- 
board that forms the exception to the rule, and there the 
production of cotton and rice amply compensates for the de- 
ficiency of the cereals. It is only because the conveyance 
by sea of food to the Southern ports from the North is 
cheaper than the carriage by railroad, from the interior of 
the Southern States, that wheat, corn, and other grain, are 
shipped to any extent from the North, in exchange for cotton, 
tobacco, and rice. But if the policy of non-intercourse 
should prevail, the demand at the Southern seaboard would 
soon produce the necessary supply from the interior. The 
South will wholly withdraw its trade and its exchanges from 
the North, and transfer them to England, France, and other 
European countries. 

But, after all, it is a very small proportion of the bread- 
stuffs and other food, consumed by the Southern seaboard, 
that comes from the North. For instance, Mobile derives its 
chief supplies from New Orleans — one of the cheapest mar- 
kets in the United States. The prices at New Orleans, 
Savannah, Charleston, and New York, compare thus : 



Article. 



Flour 

Wheat..., 

Corn 

Potatoes 
Bacon ... 
Butter..., 
Cheese.., 
Apples... 



New Orleans, 
Nov. 21. 



$4 50 

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Savannah, 
Nov. 23. 



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Charleston, 
Nov. 23. 



$6 00 

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New York, 
Nov. 28. 



$4 85 @ 

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1 50 @ 

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20 

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AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 169 

Here, then, it will be seen that the average cost of these 
essential articles of food is less at New Orleans than it is at 
New York ; and from New Orleans, which is supplied by the 
Mississippi, all parts of the cotton Gulf States are accessible 
either by water or by railroad. The Atlantic cotton States 
are also connected with the interior Southern States, both 
by water and railroad communication. 

Then, the South produces food of better quality than the 
North. Southern flour, for instance, commands the highest 
price in the market of New York. The average daily sales 
of Southern flour in this market are from 1200 to 1500 bar- 
rels ; and if we take into account the quantity of flour and 
other breadstuffs sent here from Virginia, Tennessee, Ken- 
tucky, Missouri, North Carolina, and other slave States, per- 
haps the balance against the South, on the score of food, 
would be exceedingly small. 

The South, moreover, excels the North in its water-power, 
and teems with coal and other minerals. It has cheaper 
labor, and a better climate, and therefore can successfully 
compete with the North in manufactures. Owing to the 
mildness of the weather in winter, its factories can work all 
the year round ; and the South requires less clothing and 
less fuel for its popu-lation, (two main items in the expendi- 
ture of the Northern mechanic,) and therefore a higher de- 
gree of comfort can be obtained for the same labor at the 
South than at the North. 

The G-ulf of Mexico will become the Mediterranean of 
the New World, surrounded by States more wealthy, more 
advanced in civilization and in all the arts of government 
than were those of Greece or Rome ; and which occupy a 
country around its shores more fertile and fruitful than the 
land of the laurel and the olive, while a great river more 
vast in its outstretched tributaries than the Nile, will cease- 
lessly pour its tide of commerce into the city of its delta. 



170 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 



THE COMMERCIAL AND FINANCIAL INDEPENDENCE 



CONFEDERATE STATES. 



The force of habit has constituted the chief obstacle to our political 
independence — the habit of cherishing for the Union a cordial and 
immovable attachment, of thinking and speaking of it as a palladium 
of our political safety and prosperity, and of discountenancing what- 
ever might suggest even a suspicion that it could, in any event, be 
abandoned. This habit had acquired all the strength of second 
nature, and never could have been changed except after a long train 
of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the sanie object of 
sectional domination, and tending inevitably to absolute' despotism. 
Looking to its aggregate results, it is difficult to over-estimate the 
value of the Union, but looking to its results, in detail, -it is readily 
seen that certain portions of the United States have enjoyed the lion's 
share of its benefits. It is worse than that — certain portions have 
grown rich and powerful by trading upon the capital produced by 
other parties. The whole truth is still worse — certain portions have 
for years been little more than colonial dependencies of other portions 
— so far, at least, as their commercial and financial interests have 
been concerned. In the progress of this communication, each one of 
these positions will be fully established. 

The growth of the commerce of our country, from 1764, when it 
was interrupted by the growing difficulties between the colonies and 
the mother country, to the present time, furnishes the strongest pos- 
sible view of the prosperity of the Union as a whole. This growth is 
exhibited by the following figures : 

Imports. Exports. 

In 1764 ? 5,502,860 $11,203,800 

In 1860 362,166,254 373,189,274 

In the fiscal year, ending June 30, 1860, the amount of our surplus 
products of all kinds, exported to foreign countries, and exchanged 
for their products, was three hundred and seventy-three millions of 
dollars. The amount of foreign products so exchanged for was three 
hundred and sixty-two millions. As the trade between nations con- 
sists of an exchange of simple products, it is apparent that the 
amount of our surplus products for export furnishes the best test of 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 171 

our national prosperity. But this general exhibit of our -wonderful 
prosperity as a nation furnishes but an inadequate view of the real 
prosperity of the different portions of the nation. The account must 
be stated between the two sections in order to have a correct view of 
the subject. The exports of the Northern and Southern States stand 
thus: 

Exports of Northern products $ 97,346,973 

" Southern products 218,895,450 

" gold and silver coin 26,033,578 

. " gold and silver bullion 30,913,173 

Total exports for 1860 $373,189,174 

Viewing the North and South as two partners embarked in foreign 
trade, it appears that whilst the North is twice as numerous as the 
South, yet the South furoishes more than twice the capital of the 
concern. 

These exports are carried abroad and exchanged for goods, wares, 
and merchandise which constitute our imports. In 1860, they 
amounted to $362,166,254. Of this amount the official tables show 
that there was imported, 

Into Southern ports $ 40,585,368 

Into Northern ports 321,580,886 

Here is a great fact that ought to arrest Southern attention. Al- 
though the South produces for exportation, and actually exports 
from her ports largely over two hundred millions fit dollars' worth of 
produce, yet of the goods for which they are exchanged abroad less 
than one-fifth of the amount comes back through our own ports ; the 
residue comes back through Northern ports. 

But it must be borne in mind, that whilst the South exports from 
her own ports largely over two hundred millions worth of produce, 
she does not export this produce in Southern vessels. Six-sevenths of 
these exports go abroad in Northern vessels, thus furnishing the 
Northern capital, vested in tonnage, the round profit of twenty mil- 
lions a year made for freighting Southern produce to foreign markets. 
Such has been our dependence on the North for the transportation 
of our surplus products to foreign markets. 

One hundred and seventy-eight millions of the goods imported in 
exchange for Southern products are brought to us through Northern 
ports, for the purpose of making it the subject of complaint against 
the North. The fact, however, is important, inasmuch as it shows 
how dependent we have heretofore been upon the North for most of 
the necessaries and luxuries for which our products have been ex- 
changed. We have been content to furnish the products, and then 
to depend upon Northern capital and enterprise for converting it into 
the goods which we require in exchange. We cannot complain if we 
have consented to rely on Northern men as our factors and agents, 
in carrying on our foreign trade, and in furnishing us with goods. 



172 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

They have amassed immense fortunes in thus transacting our busi- 
ness, and we have been satisfied with our dependent condition. 

If they have made twenty millions annually, in the way of freights, 
on our products to Europe, and twenty millions more freights in 
bringing back the goods for which they were exchanged, and thirty 
millions more as profits on the goods thus brought back and sold to 
our retail merchants, we have submitted to it without murmuring; 
and do not now bring it up for any other purpose than to show how 
quietly and patiently we have acquiesced in the course of trade 
which has enabled them to make annually seventy millions, in acting- 
as our agents and factors. It is too obvious to require comment, 
that if the capital that worked this machinery of trade had been 
owned in Baltimore, Charleston, and New Orleans, these immense 
profits, instead of building up Boston, New York, and Philadelphia, 
would have contributed to building up great Southern cities. It is 
equally obvious that if we employ our own men and means hereafter, 
in managing our foreign trade, we shall have Southern cities rivalling 
those of the North. 

It is not to be supposed that all of the surplus products of the 
South are exported to foreign countries. Unfortunately for accuracy 
of statement, we have not the official data on which to exhibit that 
portion of our products which is sent directly to the North for ex- 
change for Northern products. We know that about 800,000 bales 
of our cotton — worth about forty million dollars — are sent yearly 
to New England, and we know of many other articles, worth millions 
upon millions of dollars, that are sent and exchanged for Northern 
products, but of the aggregate amount we can only form an estimate. 
A very able and reliable Northern writer, T. P. Kettell, Esq., after 
investigation, has expressed the opinion that the South sends annu- 
ally to the North produce to the value of two hundred millions of 
dollars. Assuming this sum to be reliable, the account will stand 
thus : 

Goods imported through Northern ports in exchange for Southern 

products - $218,895,450 

Produce sent directly North 200,000,000 

Total $418,895,450 

As we buy at least as much from the North as we sell there, the 
trade between the two sections is double this, or $837,790,900, an- 
nually. If this immense trade was carried on, on terms mutually 
beneficial, it would indicate an amazing prosperity, not only in the 
nation, as a whole, but in all of its parts. 

I have shown some of the advantages enjoyed by the North, grow- 
ing out of the peculiar course of trade between the two sections. It 
falls in my way now to notice another advantage enjoyed by the 
North, and, beyond all comparison, the most important and controll- 
ing one. My allusion is to the influence of the tariff-laws on the 
trade and commerce of the two sections. I am not now criticising 
the policy of protective or prohibitory duties, as recently adopted 



AND KEPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 173 

by the Congress of the United States, but I am following the lights 
furnished by the official report for 1860, when the revenue tariff was 
in operation. 

In 1860, the dutiable goods imported amounted to $279,872,327, 
and the average tariff was 20 per cent. Of this amount, one hun- 
dred and fifteen millions were imported in exchange for Northern 
products, and one hundred and sixty-four millions in exchange for 
Southern products — the former yielding twenty-three millions of 
revenue, and the latter thirty-two millions. It thus appears that the 
South contributes three-fifths of the revenue from imports, and yet 
it is an undeniable fact that, in the disbursement of the revenues, at 
least three-fifths are expended in the North. If such is the unequal 
operation of a revenue tariff, it would be difficult to estimate the in- 
justice of the protective tariff now in operation in the Northern 
Government. 

But I do not note this inequality in the operation of the tariff 
policy in order to complain of it ; the law gave this advantage to 
the North, and the South being a law-abiding people, submitted to 
the injustice without complaint. The fact, however, is useful in 
showing the independence of the South of the North. 

There is another feature in the operation of the tariff policy which 
deserves special attention. I have shown that the South buys of the 
North about two hundred millions of goods annually, in addition to 
the amount received from abroad through Northern ports, in ex- 
change for Southern products exported to foreign countries. The 
operation of the tariff policy on the prices we have to pay for this 
additional two hundred millions of Northern goods is exactly the 
same as upon the like goods imported from abroad. It increases the 
prices to the consumers of the goods at the rate of twenty per cent., 
under the revenue tariff of 1857, and of thirty to forty per cent., 
under the tariff of 1860. Under the revenue tariff, the additional 
cost to the Southern consumers would be sixty millions annually, in- 
cluding tariff and freights, and with the protective tariff, from eighty 
to one hundred millions annually. As onerous and unjust as is this 
annual imposition of sixty millions upon Southern consumption, we 
cannot complain of it, because it is only the incidental protection 
derived by the manufacturers of the North from a revenue tariff, 
but when this amount is swelled to eighty or one hundred millions, 
under a protective tariff, it becomes a subject for just complaint. 

We may now recapitulate the substantial benefits derived by the 
North from the course of commercial dealings established between 
the two sections. The following figures exhibit the annual profits 
made by the North upon Southern products : 

For freights to and from Europe $40,000,000 

For profits on foreign imported goods sold to Southern merchants.. 30,000,000 
For increased tariff prices on Northern manufactures sold to the 
South 60:000.000 

Total profits §130,000,000 



174 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC, 

For opportunity of realizing annually this aggregate profit of one 
hundred and thirty millions on Southern products, the North is in- 
debted mainly to the Union. These profits result from that peculiar 
course of commercial trade, between the North and South, which 
has been stimulated and fostered and protected by the legislation of 
the Union from the beginning of the Government. As rich as the 
North is now, she was once very poor. Before she was blessed by the 
Union with the South, her people made a living by sending small 
vessels to the West India Islands, laden with fish, beef, butter, pork, 
poultry, cider, apples, cabbages, onions, etc. These articles sold for 
money, which they carried to England, who bought their goods, re- 
turning by the way of the African coast, catching or buying negroes, 
and bringing them back for sale to the Southern colonies. They 
had little or nothing to export, whilst the Southern colonies had a 
large surplus of exports over their imports. 

As long as Great Britain exercised dominion over her colonies, the 
North could not compete with the mother country for this carrying 
trade, but so soon as the Union was formed, the restriction was re- 
sumed, and laws were passed giving large encouragement to the col- 
onists to embark in that trade. The North was not slow to take ad- 
vantage of these laws. 

Another field for profitable enterprise was at the same time opened 
up, through the operations of the tariff laws, which attracted early 
attention. The North saw that if manufactories could be built up 
at home, the protection furnished by the tariff law would give them 
a virtual monopoly of the domestic trade in manufactures. They 
had the vessels to bring the raw material from the South, where it 
was produced — -they had the water-power to drive the machinery — 
they had accumulated capital in the African slave trade, and now the 
tariff laws gave them large advantages in competing with foreign 
manufactures. The North eagerly availed herself of every favorable 
circumstance, and embarked largely in manufacturing. It was not 
difficult to procure such protective legislation as the North claimed 
to be necessary, and the Bank of the United States was more than 
willing to contribute facilities for raising the capital needed, for en- 
abling the North to do the manufacturing for the whole country. 
This course of trade became so firmly established before the Bank 
was overthrown, and the high protective policy was modified, that 
the North has since had but little difficulty in maintaining its ascend- 
ency. 

It is not in the power of figures to convey to the mind a correct 
idea of the advantage which the North has enjoyed over the South, 
under the influence of the various laws which have stimulated and 
controlled the employment of capital. Many Southern men saw and 
protested against the unequal and unjust operation of the system of 
legislation, which was em-iching one section at the expense of the 
other. They struggled to resist the overwhelming power that was 
combined against them, but they struggled in vain. All they got 



AND REPOSITORY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 175 

for their labors were the bitter denunciations of the North, as being 
restless Disunionists. All they could do was to submit to the power 
they could not control, and glide into the course of trade which had 
been the fixed habit of the country. It is not surprising that, with 
such advantages, the North became rich, but it is surprising that the 
South was able to endure the heavy exactions without becoming ab- 
solutely impoverished. Nothing can show more clearly the real ca- 
pacity of the South to become the richest people in the world, than 
the facts which we have detailed. 

Hitherto the South has done little else than produce capital for 
the North to trade upon. We have produced annually over four 
hundred millions of raw materials, which have passed immediately 
into the hands of Northern capitalists, and constituted the basis of 
the wealth which they have extracted from them. It has been 
shown how they have made an annual profit of one hundred and 
thirty millions in freighting our products, returning them to us in 
foreign goods, and in the incidental protection derived from the tariff 
law. But this does not embrace the millions made in the way of 
brokerage, interest, commission, etc., and in the management of our 
produce. Nor does it embrace the millions which we spend yearly in 
travel in the North. Mr. Kettell estimates that 50,000 Southerners 
go North every year, and spend an average of $1000, making the 
total annual expenditure for travel of fifty millions of dollars. Nor 
does it embrace the millions that we spend in sending our sons and 
daughters North to be educated. Nor does it embrace that incalcu- 
lable amount derived by the North from the system of banking, ex- 
changes, and credits which has made us as financially dependent on 
the North as we have been commercially. It is impossible to esti- 
mate with accuracy these amounts, and, therefore, I adopt the re- 
sult of Mr. KettelFs investigations. He comes to the conclusion 
that the South pays annually to the North, for interest, brokerage, 
insurance, travel, etc., about one hundred and fifteen millions. If 
this be added to the amount of one hundred and thirty millions, be- 
fore estimated as the commercial profits of the North, it yields the 
sum of two hundred and forty-five millions, derived annually by the 
North from her union with the South. And then, speaking of the 
consequences of separation from the South, he says : 

"From what has been derailed above, as revealed to us from the 
returns of the census, it is quite apparent that the North, as distin- 
guished from the South and West, would be alone permanently in- 
jured. Its fortune depends upon manufacturing and shipping; but 
it neither raises its own food nor its own raw material, nor does it 
furnish freights for its own shipping. The South, on the other 
hand, raises a supply of food, and supplies the world with raw ma- 
terials. Lumber, hides, cotton, wool, indigo — all that the manufac- 
turer requires — is within its own circle. The requisite capital to put 
them into action is rapidly accumulating, and in the long run it 
would lose— after recovering from the first disasters — nothing by 
separation." 



176 THE CONFEDERATE STATES ALMANAC. 

Thus wrote a Northern author. He thus forcibly concludes his 
remarks : 

"The North has no future material resources ; in minerals, both 
the other sections surpass it. In metals, it is comparatively desti- 
tute ; of raw materials, it has none. Its ability to feed itself is 
questionable. Its commerce is to the whole country what that of 
Holland was to the world, viz. : living on the trade of other people. 
Its manufactures occupy the same position, awaiting only the time 
when the other sections will do their own work. When that moment 
arrives, Massachusetts, which now occupies the proudest rank in the 
Union, will fall back upon her own resources, and still claim to be an 
agricultural State, since her summer crop i* granite, and her winter 
crop is ice. This period the North supinely permits a few unscru- 
pulous politicians, clerical agitators, and reprobate persons to 
hasten, by the most wanton attacks upon institutions of their best 
customers. They are forcing the Northern slave States to assume 
to the South the same position that New England held to the South 
on the formation of the Union. They are holding out to them 
the bright prize of becoming the manufacturers, importers and car- 
riers for the South, as the North has been. They offer them this 
brilliant premium to cut their connection with the North, in order to 
enjoy those branches of industry in relation to the South which have 
conferred such wealth and prosperity upon New England and the 
Middle States. England became rieh by the oolonies — -repelled 
them. Her wealth fell on New England ; she has now be- 
come rich, and in her turn repels the South in favor of the Northern 
slave States. These latter see the prize falling to them, and may be- 
come eager to grasp it before the North shall have awakened to its 
danger." 



H. C. CLARKE, 



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